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The Pediatric SmartShoe: Wearable Sensor System for Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Gait

Published on Feb 1, 2018in IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering3.478
· DOI :10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2786269
Nagaraj Hegde7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UA: University of Alabama),
Ting Zhang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UA: University of Alabama)
+ 7 AuthorsEdward Sazonov27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UA: University of Alabama)
Abstract
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive neuro-developmental conditions occurring in early childhood that causes movement disorders and physical disability. Measuring activity levels and gait patterns is an important aspect of CP rehabilitation programs. Traditionally, such programs utilize commercially available laboratory systems, which cannot to be utilized in community living. In this study, a novel, shoe-based, wearable sensor system (pediatric SmartShoe) was tested on 11 healthy children and 10 children with CP to validate its use for monitoring of physical activity and gait. Novel data processing techniques were developed to remove the effect of orthotics on the sensor signals. Machine learning models were developed to automatically classify the activities of daily living. The temporal gait parameters estimated from the SmartShoe data were compared against reference measurements on a GAITRite mat. A leave-one-out cross-validation method indicated a 95.3% average accuracy of activity classification (for sitting, standing, and walking) for children with CP and 96.2% for healthy children. Average relative errors in gait parameter estimation (gait cycle, stance, swing, and step time, % single support time on both lower extremities, along with cadence) ranged from 0.2% to 6.4% (standard deviation range = 1.4%–9.9%). These results suggest that the pediatric SmartShoe can accurately measure physical activity and gait of children with CP and can potentially be used for ambulatory monitoring.
  • References (43)
  • Citations (6)
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References43
Newest
#1Nagaraj Hegde (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 7
#2Matthew Bries (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 2
Last. Edward Sazonov (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 27
view all 5 authors...
Automatic recognition of activities of daily living (ADL) is an important component in understanding of energy balance, quality of life, and other areas of health and well-being. In our previous work, we had proposed an insole-based activity monitor—SmartStep, designed to be socially acceptable and comfortable. The goals of the current study were: first, validation of SmartStep in recognition of a broad set of ADL; second, comparison of the SmartStep to a wrist sensor and testing these in combin...
17 CitationsSource
#1Cheng WangH-Index: 1
#2Xiangdong WangH-Index: 2
Last. Jintao LiH-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Most existing wearable gait analysis methods focus on the analysis of data obtained from inertial sensors. This paper proposes a novel, low-cost, wireless and wearable gait analysis system which uses microphone sensors to collect footstep sound signals during walking. This is the first time a microphone sensor is used as a wearable gait analysis device as far as we know. Based on this system, a gait analysis algorithm for estimating the temporal parameters of gait is presented. The algorithm ful...
3 CitationsSource
#1Nagaraj HegdeH-Index: 7
#2Matthew BriesH-Index: 2
Last. Edward SazonovH-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
Footwear is an integral part of daily life. Embedding sensors and electronics in footwear for various different applications started more than two decades ago. This review article summarizes the developments in the field of footwear-based wearable sensors and systems. The electronics, sensing technologies, data transmission, and data processing methodologies of such wearable systems are all principally dependent on the target application. Hence, the article describes key application scenarios ut...
29 CitationsSource
#1Saeid Motiian (WVU: West Virginia University)H-Index: 8
#2Paola Pergami (WVU: West Virginia University)H-Index: 7
Last. Gianfranco Doretto (WVU: West Virginia University)H-Index: 18
view all 5 authors...
Background Gait analysis for therapy regimen prescription and monitoring requires patients to physically access clinics with specialized equipment. The timely availability of such infrastructure at the right frequency is especially important for small children. Besides being very costly, this is a challenge for many children living in rural areas. This is why this work develops a low-cost, portable, and automated approach for in-home gait analysis, based on the Microsoft Kinect.
11 CitationsSource
Nov 1, 2015 in BIBM (Bioinformatics and Biomedicine)
#1Nagaraj Hegde (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 7
#2Edward Sazonov (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 27
Insole based wearable sensors are becoming popular in applications such as gait and physical activity monitoring, energy expenditure estimation, in providing biofeedback, fall risk and others. In the existing systems, the insole needs to be taken out of the shoe to recharge the battery, which is not a convenient task. The existing systems are application specific and can be used for a limited purpose. However, the desired system functionality for the shoe based wearable systems depends on factor...
10 CitationsSource
Aug 1, 2015 in EMBC (International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society)
#1Nagaraj Hegde (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 7
#2George D. Fulk (Clarkson University)H-Index: 20
Last. Edward Sazonov (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 27
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Regaining the ability to walk is a major rehabilitation goal after a stroke. Recent research suggests that, in people with stroke, task-oriented and intensive rehabilitation strategies can drive cortical reorganization and increase activity levels. This paper describes development and pilot testing of a novel wearable device for Real-Time Gait and Activity Improving Telerehabilitation (RT-GAIT), designed for use with such rehabilitation strategies. The RT-GAIT provides auditory or tactile feedba...
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#1Iván GonzálezH-Index: 4
#2Jesús FontechaH-Index: 13
Last. José Bravo RodríguezH-Index: 22
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A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solut...
40 CitationsSource
#1Edward Sazonov (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 27
#2Nagaraj Hegde (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 7
Last. Nadezhda Sazonova (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 11
view all 5 authors...
The use of wearable sensors coupled with the processing power of mobile phones may be an attractive way to provide real-time feedback about physical activity and energy expenditure (EE). Here, we describe the use of a shoe-based wearable sensor system (SmartShoe) with a mobile phone for real-time recognition of various postures/physical activities and the resulting EE. To deal with processing power and memory limitations of the phone, we compare the use of support vector machines (SVM), multinom...
17 CitationsSource
Jul 1, 2015 in COMPSAC (Computer Software and Applications Conference)
#1Ferdaus Kawsar (Marquette University)H-Index: 5
#2Kamrul Hasan (Marquette University)H-Index: 3
Last. Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed (Marquette University)H-Index: 23
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Physical activities detection plays a vital role to healthcare professionals who would like to monitor patients remotely and to develop context-sensitive systems. Major number of physical activity detection systems use accelerometers to collect data from different parts of the body. Since those approaches have limitations from users' point of view, we have used smart phones that are coming with built-in accelerometers and gyroscopes. We have proposed and developed three novel approaches for acti...
12 CitationsSource
#1Carla F. J. Nooijen (EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)H-Index: 10
#2Janke F. de Groot (HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht)H-Index: 3
Last. Hans Bussmann (EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)H-Index: 12
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Background Children who are wheelchair-dependent are at risk for developing unfavorable physical behavior; therefore, assessment, monitoring and efforts to improve physical behavior should start early in life. VitaMove is an accelerometer-based activity monitor and can be used to detect and distinguish different categories of physical behavior, including activities performed in a wheelchair and activities using the legs. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the VitaMove activi...
19 CitationsSource
Cited By6
Newest
#1David Silvera-Tawil (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 2
#2M. Sazzad Hussain (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 1
Last. Jane Li (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
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Abstract Healthcare systems are primarily focused on treating patients’ conditions after a confirmed diagnosis. The emerging field of precision health targets early detection and tailored treatment of health conditions, by continuously monitoring health and well-being in all people. Active monitoring and assessment can be achieved through continuous, portable and implantable health-monitoring devices, providing comprehensive picture of human health and lifestyle. Emerging technologies have the p...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sen QiuH-Index: 7
#2Huihui WangH-Index: 1
Last. Tony BauerH-Index: 1
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Human gait reflects health condition and is widely adopted as a diagnostic basisin clinical practice. This research adopts compact inertial sensor nodes to monitor the functionof human lower limbs, which implies the most fundamental locomotion ability. The proposedwearable gait analysis system captures limb motion and reconstructs 3D models with high accuracy.It can output the kinematic parameters of joint flexion and extension, as well as the displacementdata of human limbs. The experimental re...
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#1Lien-Wu ChenH-Index: 11
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Last. Ming-Fong TsaiH-Index: 11
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In this paper, we propose a crowdsourced children monitoring and finding (CCMF) framework to detect holding-up behaviors and find missing children using wearable devices and surrounding smartphones based on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. In the monitoring mode, the CCMF framework can prevent young children from taking away by strangers/people with bad intentions. In the finding mode, the CCMF framework can cooperatively find missing children equipped with wearable devices consisting of m...
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#1Sen Qiu (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Jie Li (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive neuro-developmental conditions occurring in early childhood that causes movement disorders and physical disability. Measuring activity levels and gait patterns is an important aspect of rehabilitation programs for CP. Hippotherapy is a rehabilitation method to improve motor coordination ability of children with CP. However, there is still no practical evidence for the effectiveness of hippotherapy. This paper introduces a method of motor measureme...
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#1Rui Hua (A&M: Texas A&M University)
#2Ya Wang (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 11
Gait monitoring and analysis has attracted accumulative attention from the health technology community, with a particular high demand on wearable devices enabling long-term real-time daily gait monitoring. However, the vast majority of existing commercial and emerging technologies use significant electric power, need multiple sensor nodes, and are expensive and complicated to wear. This paper proposes a customized low power, low-cost monitoring insole (MONI) with minimized sensor nodes for real ...
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Background Physical therapy interventions for ambulatory youth with cerebral palsy (CP) often focus on activity-based strategies to promote functional mobility and participation in physical activity. The use of activity monitors validated for this population could help to design effective personalized interventions by providing reliable outcome measures. The objective of this study was to devise a single-sensor based algorithm for locomotion and cadence detection, robust to atypical gait pattern...
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Wearable devices have the potential to improve healthcare, but suffer from significant barriers to adoption, including the need for constant recharging. Harvesting energy from the ambient environment to top-up batteries can overcome this, but the actual energy available is very small, and hence it is critical that the whole system is highly optimized. This paper presents an investigation into the optimization of inertial energy harvesters for placement at the human foot. Lower body locations hav...
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Quantitative gait assessment typically involves optical motion capture systems and force plates, which result in high operating costs. Footwear-based motion tracking systems can provide a portable and affordable solution for real-time gait analysis in unconstrained environments. However, the relatively low accuracy of these systems still represents a barrier to their widespread use. In this paper, we show that linear and learning-based regression models can substantially improve the raw estimate...
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