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Core Temperature Responses to Cold-Water Immersion Recovery: A Pooled-Data Analysis

Published on Dec 28, 2017in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance3.979
· DOI :10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661
Jessica M. Stephens4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Ken Sharpe26
Estimated H-index: 26
+ 10 AuthorsShona L. Halson28
Estimated H-index: 28
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Abstract
To examine the effect of postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) protocols, compared with control (CON), on the magnitude and time course of core temperature (Tc) responses. Methods: Pooled-data analyses were used to examine the Tc responses of 157 subjects from previous postexercise CWI trials in the authors’ laboratories. CWI protocols varied with different combinations of temperature, duration, immersion depth, and mode (continuous vs intermittent). Tc was examined as a double difference (ΔΔTc), calculated as the change in Tc in CWI condition minus the corresponding change in CON. The effect of CWI on ΔΔTc was assessed using separate linear mixed models across 2 time components (component 1, immersion; component 2, postintervention). Results: Intermittent CWI resulted in a mean decrease in ΔΔTc that was 0.25°C (0.10°C) (estimate [SE]) greater than continuous CWI during the immersion component (P = .02). There was a significant effect of CWI temperature during the immersion component (P = .05), where reductions in water temperature of 1°C resulted in decreases in ΔΔTc of 0.03°C (0.01°C). Similarly, the effect of CWI duration was significant during the immersion component (P = .01), where every 1 min of immersion resulted in a decrease in ΔΔTc of 0.02°C (0.01°C). The peak difference in Tc between the CWI and CON interventions during the postimmersion component occurred at 60 min postintervention. Conclusions: Variations in CWI mode, duration, and temperature may have a significant effect on the extent of change in Tc. Careful consideration should be given to determine the optimal amount of core cooling before deciding which combination of protocol factors to prescribe.
  • References (32)
  • Citations (2)
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References32
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#1Jessica M. Stephens (University of the Sunshine Coast)H-Index: 4
#2Shona L. Halson (AIS: Australian Institute of Sport)H-Index: 28
Last. Christopher D. Askew (University of the Sunshine Coast)H-Index: 20
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ABSTRACTThis study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently ...
3 CitationsSource
Cold-water immersion (CWI) is one of the recovery techniques commonly used by athletes for post-exercise recovery. Nevertheless, the effects of CWI using different temperatures and the dose–response relationship of this technique have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of two strategies of CWI, using different water temperatures with passive recovery post exercise in the management of some markers of muscle damage, and to observe whether any of the tech...
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Purpose:To explore the influence of body composition on thermal responses to cold water immersion (CWI) and the recovery of exercise performance.Methods:Male subjects were stratified into two groups; low fat (LF; n=10); or high fat (HF; n=10). Subjects completed a high intensity interval test (HIIT) on a cycle ergometer followed by 15 min recovery intervention (control (CON) or CWI). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk) and heart rate were recorded continuously. Performance was assessed...
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The use of cold-water immersion (CWI) for postexercise recovery has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, but there is a dearth of strong scientific evidence to support the optimization of protocols for performance benefits. While the increase in practice and popularity of CWI has led to multiple studies and reviews in the area of water immersion, the research has predominantly focused on performance outcomes associated with postexercise CWI. Studies to date have generally shown positiv...
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Background Cold water immersion (CWI) is a technique commonly used in post-exercise recovery. However, the procedures involved in the technique may vary, particularly in terms of water temperature and immersion time, and the most effective approach remains unclear.
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Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness between cold water immersion (CWI) and phase change material (PCM) cooling on intramuscular, core and skin temperature and cardiovascular responses.Methods:In ...
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#1Jonathan M. Peake (Queensland Academy of Sport)H-Index: 36
Recovery after exercise is an essential element of the training–adaptation cycle. The overall goal of postexercise recovery is to restore homeostasis in many of the body’s physiological systems. After exercise, fluids and fuels lost or consumed during exercise must be replaced, body temperature and regular cardiovascular function must be restored, and damaged tissue must be repaired. These events should all occur in a timely manner before the next training session or competitive event occurs. Ou...
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