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Effect of Early Grade Retention on School Completion: A Prospective Study

Published on Nov 9, 2017in Journal of Educational Psychology5.18
· DOI :10.1037/edu0000243
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 1 AuthorsShelby S. Bauer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
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Abstract
This 14-year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in Grades 1–5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 256 retained students and the 478 students continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in Grade 1. At the end of 14 years, 477 had earned a diploma, 21 had obtained a GED, 110 had dropped out, and 126 were missing school completion status. Using multinomial logistic regression with high school graduation as the reference outcome, retention led to a significant increase in the likelihood of dropping out of high school (odds ratio = 2.61), above students’ propensity to be retained and additional covariates. The contrast between graduation and GED outcomes was not significant. A significant Retention × Ethnicity × Gender interaction was obtained: The negative effect of retention was strongest for African American and Hispanic girls. Even though grade retention in the elementary grades does not harm students in terms of their academic achievement or educational motivation at the transition to high school, retention increases the odds that a student will drop out of school before obtaining a high school diploma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • References (78)
  • Citations (3)
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References78
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of School Psychology3.08
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Qian Cao3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 2 AuthorsCarissa Cerda3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on dropping out of school by age 16. Participants were 538 (54% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into a longitudinal study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.58). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 171 retained students and the 367 continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in grade 1. Fifty-one students dropped out of sc...
Published on May 1, 2017in Child Development5.02
Kenneth A. Dodge115
Estimated H-index: 115
(Duke University),
Yu Bai1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Duke University)
+ 1 AuthorsClara G. Muschkin10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Duke University)
North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positi...
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Journal of Research on Adolescence2.07
Myung Hee Im7
Estimated H-index: 7
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12–14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12–14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the traj...
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Journal of Political Economy6.34
Christopher Jepsen16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Public Policy Institute of California),
Peter R. Mueser17
Estimated H-index: 17
(MU: University of Missouri),
Kenneth R. Troske24
Estimated H-index: 24
(MU: University of Missouri)
We evaluate returns to General Educational Development (GED) certification for high school dropouts using state administrative data. We apply a fuzzy regression discontinuity method to account for test takers retaking the test. For women we find that GED certification has no statistically significant effect on either employment or earnings. For men we find a significant increase in earnings in the second year after taking the test but no impact in subsequent years. GED certification increases po...
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Journal of Adolescent Health3.96
Jennifer E. Lansford48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Duke University),
Kenneth A. Dodge115
Estimated H-index: 115
(Duke University)
+ 1 AuthorsJohn E. Bates74
Estimated H-index: 74
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
Abstract Purpose This study aimed to advance a public health perspective on links between education and health by examining risk and protective factors that might alter the relation between dropping out of high school and subsequent negative outcomes. Methods A community sample (N = 585) was followed from age 5 to 27 years. Data included self and parent reports, peer sociometric nominations, and observed mother-teen interactions. Results High school dropouts were up to four times more likely to ...
Published on Apr 19, 2016in Multivariate Behavioral Research2.14
Machteld Vandecandelaere4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven),
Stijn Vansteelandt33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UGent: Ghent University)
+ 1 AuthorsJan Van Damme27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
One of the main objectives of many empirical studies in the social and behavioral sciences is to assess the causal effect of a treatment or intervention on the occurrence of a certain event. The randomized controlled trial is generally considered the gold standard to evaluate such causal effects. However, for ethical or practical reasons, social scientists are often bound to the use of nonexperimental, observational designs. When the treatment and control group are different with regard to varia...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Child Development5.02
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Myung Hee Im7
Estimated H-index: 7
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Between-child and within-child effects of teacher–student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1–4 (ages 6–10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling the effect of time-varying teacher–student relationship (TSR) warmth and conflict on children's peer relatedness. Teachers reported on warmth and confl...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Psychological Methods8.19
Heining Cham13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Fordham University),
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Propensity score analysis is a method that equates treatment and control groups on a comprehensive set of measured confounders in observational (nonrandomized) studies. A successful propensity score analysis reduces bias in the estimate of the average treatment effect in a nonrandomized study, making the estimate more comparable with that obtained from a randomized experiment. This article reviews and discusses an important practical issue in propensity analysis, in which the baseline covariates...
Published on Nov 2, 2015in Journal of Educational Research1.16
Alyssa K. Parr1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lake Forest College),
Verena S. Bonitz6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Lake Forest College)
The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of predicting high school dropout in a nationally representative sample of 15,753 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effect of the var...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Journal of School Psychology3.08
Heining Cham13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Fordham University),
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 1 AuthorsMyung Hee Im7
Estimated H-index: 7
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, n retained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, n promoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists o...
Cited By3
Newest
Published on Jul 15, 2019in Journal of Youth and Adolescence3.26
Jeanne Gubbels3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Claudia E. van der Put12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Mark Assink8
Estimated H-index: 8
Published on Jul 2, 2019in Reading & Writing Quarterly0.93
Sandraluz Lara-Cinisomo12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
D. Bruce Taylor4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte),
Adriana L. Medina4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Published on 2019in AERA Open
Meghan P. McCormick9
Estimated H-index: 9
(MDRC),
Robin Neuhaus + 5 AuthorsSandee McClowry12
Estimated H-index: 12
(NYU: New York University)
Social–Emotional Learning (SEL) programs are school-based preventive interventions that aim to improve children’s social–emotional skills and behavioral development. Although meta-analytic research...
Published on Jan 29, 2019in Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice1.35
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 1 AuthorsShelby S. Bauer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
James J. Dillon3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of West Georgia)
What stands in the way of a “new day” in elementary education is each of the ten things described in this book. Speaking psychologically, these obstacles come down to three things: fear, ideology, and an intense need to control. The first part of the chapter discusses ways of dealing with the public and administrative fear of not having all students succeed in the college prep curriculum. Much of this fear comes down to mistaken theories of children’s nature as “blank slates.” The second part of...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Early Childhood Research Quarterly2.83
Tanya Tavassolie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(GMU: George Mason University),
Adam Winsler32
Estimated H-index: 32
(GMU: George Mason University)
Abstract As a result of No Child Left Behind, Florida began mandatory 3rd grade retention for children who fail the high-stakes reading Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test [FCAT]. We examined enforcement practices of this policy. We examined a large ( N = 27,980), ethnically diverse, urban sample. Of those who took the FCAT reading test in 3rd grade, 15% failed, and of those who failed, only 53% actually repeated 3rd grade. Black and Latino students, those receiving free/reduced lunch, those w...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Interchange
The paper researches the practice of social promotion, where students who fail due to a lack of comprehension of grade level material are promoted along with their classmates who passed. Student and parent interviews, student surveys, and data from students’ graduation records are used to determine that social promotion does not improve the students’ education, instead students who are socially promoted are more likely to dropout of high school, less likely to graduate high school on time or at ...
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