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Effect of Early Grade Retention on School Completion: A Prospective Study

Published on Nov 9, 2017in Journal of Educational Psychology5.178
· DOI :10.1037/edu0000243
Jan N. Hughes41
Estimated H-index: 41
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Stephen G. West69
Estimated H-index: 69
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 1 AuthorsShelby S. Bauer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Sources
Abstract
This 14-year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in Grades 1–5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 256 retained students and the 478 students continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in Grade 1. At the end of 14 years, 477 had earned a diploma, 21 had obtained a GED, 110 had dropped out, and 126 were missing school completion status. Using multinomial logistic regression with high school graduation as the reference outcome, retention led to a significant increase in the likelihood of dropping out of high school (odds ratio = 2.61), above students’ propensity to be retained and additional covariates. The contrast between graduation and GED outcomes was not significant. A significant Retention × Ethnicity × Gender interaction was obtained: The negative effect of retention was strongest for African American and Hispanic girls. Even though grade retention in the elementary grades does not harm students in terms of their academic achievement or educational motivation at the transition to high school, retention increases the odds that a student will drop out of school before obtaining a high school diploma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
  • References (84)
  • Citations (8)
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References84
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#1Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 41
#2Qian Cao (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 3
Last. Carissa Analise Cerda (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 3
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Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on dropping out of school by age 16. Participants were 538 (54% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into a longitudinal study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.58). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 171 retained students and the 367 continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in grade 1. Fifty-one students dropped out of sc...
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#1Kenneth A. Dodge (Duke University)H-Index: 119
#2Yu Bai (Duke University)H-Index: 6
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North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positi...
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#1Myung Hee Im (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 8
#2Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 41
Last. Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 69
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In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12–14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12–14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the traj...
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We evaluate returns to General Educational Development (GED) certification for high school dropouts using state administrative data. We apply a fuzzy regression discontinuity method to account for test takers retaking the test. For women we find that GED certification has no statistically significant effect on either employment or earnings. For men we find a significant increase in earnings in the second year after taking the test but no impact in subsequent years. GED certification increases po...
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One of the main objectives of many empirical studies in the social and behavioral sciences is to assess the causal effect of a treatment or intervention on the occurrence of a certain event. The randomized controlled trial is generally considered the gold standard to evaluate such causal effects. However, for ethical or practical reasons, social scientists are often bound to the use of nonexperimental, observational designs. When the treatment and control group are different with regard to varia...
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Between-child and within-child effects of teacher–student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1–4 (ages 6–10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling the effect of time-varying teacher–student relationship (TSR) warmth and conflict on children's peer relatedness. Teachers reported on warmth and confl...
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Abstract The literature on predictors and effects of grade retention is vast. Known predictors of grade retention include gender, ethnicity, poverty, parental education, and academic skills. The subsequent effects of grade retention are hotly debated; however, many studies have shown grade retention to be detrimental to the student. The current study used a multilevel discrete-time survival analysis to investigate when grade retention is most likely in addition to whether school readiness predic...
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