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Prevalence of knee pain, radiographic osteoarthritis and arthroplasty in retired professional footballers compared with men in the general population: a cross-sectional study

Published on May 1, 2018in British Journal of Sports Medicine11.64
· DOI :10.1136/bjsports-2017-097503
Gwen Sascha Fernandes5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Sanjay Mukund Parekh1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Arthritis Research UK)
+ 5 AuthorsMichael Doherty74
Estimated H-index: 74
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Abstract
Objectives To determine the prevalence of knee pain, radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), total knee replacement (TKR) and associated risk factors in male ex-professional footballers compared with men in the general population (comparison group). Methods 1207 male ex-footballers and 4085 men in the general population in the UK were assessed by postal questionnaire. Current knee pain was defined as pain in or around the knees on most days of the previous month. Presence and severity of RKOA were assessed on standardised radiographs using the Nottingham Line Drawing Atlas (NLDA) in a subsample of 470 ex-footballers and 491 men in the comparison group. The adjusted risk ratio (aRR) and adjusted risk difference (aRD) with 95% CI in ex-footballers compared with the general population were calculated using the marginal model in Stata. Results Ex-footballers were more likely than the comparison group to have current knee pain (aRR 1.91, 95% CI 1.77 to 2.06), RKOA (aRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.92 to 2.54) and TKR (aRR 3.61, 95% CI 2.90 to 4.50). Ex-footballers were also more likely to present with chondrocalcinosis (aRR 3.41, 95% CI 2.44 to 4.77). Prevalence of knee pain and RKOA were higher in ex-footballers at all ages. However, even after adjustment for significant knee injury and other risk factors, there was more than a doubling of risk of these outcomes in footballers. Conclusions The prevalence of all knee osteoarthritis outcomes (knee pain, RKOA and TKR) were two to three times higher in male ex-footballers compared with men in the general population group. Knee injury is the main attributable risk factor. Even after adjustment for recognised risk factors, knee osteoarthritis appear to be an occupational hazard of professional football.
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References31
Newest
#1Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 18
#2Michael Lejbach Bertelsen (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 5
Last.Martí Casals (UVic-UCC: University of Vic)H-Index: 13
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#1Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 10
#2Diego Costa Astur (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 10
Last.Moises Cohen (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 22
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#1Edward C. Norton (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 42
#2Nathan W. Carroll (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
Last.Lawrence C. Kleinman (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)H-Index: 18
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#1Edward C. Norton (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 42
#2Morgen M. Miller (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 3
Last.Lawrence C. Kleinman (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)H-Index: 18
view all 3 authors...
#1Hillary J. Braun (Stanford University)H-Index: 17
#2Garry E. Gold (Stanford University)H-Index: 57
#1Frances Rees (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 10
#2Sally Doherty (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 30
Last.Michael Doherty (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 74
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Cited By9
Newest
#1Gwen Sascha Fernandes (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 5
#2Michael Doherty (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 74
Last.Weiya Zhang (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 55
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