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Auditory Scene Analysis: An Attention Perspective.

Published on Oct 17, 2017in Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research1.749
路 DOI :10.1044/2017_JSLHR-H-17-0041
Elyse S. Sussman36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine)
Abstract
Purpose This review article provides a new perspective on the role of attention in auditory scene analysis. Method A framework for understanding how attention interacts with stimulus-driven process...
  • References (40)
  • Citations (5)
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References40
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#2Timothy D. Griffiths (Newcastle University)H-Index: 59
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Due to capacity limits on perception, conditions of high perceptual load lead to reduced processing of unattended stimuli (Lavie et al., 2014). Accumulating work demonstrates the effects of visual perceptual load on visual cortex responses, but the effects on auditory processing remain poorly understood. Here we establish the neural mechanisms underlying 鈥渋nattentional deafness鈥濃攖he failure to perceive auditory stimuli under high visual perceptual load. Participants performed a visual search tas...
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#2Christoph HerrmannH-Index: 66
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Detecting regularity and change in the environment is crucial for survival, as it enables making predictions about the world and informing goal-directed behavior. In the auditory modality, the detection of regularity involves segregating incoming sounds into distinct perceptual objects (stream segregation). The detection of change from this within-stream regularity is associated with the mismatch negativity, a component of auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs). A central unanswered ques...
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#1Elyse S. Sussman (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 36
#2Albert S. Bregman (McGill University)H-Index: 31
Last. Wei Wei Lee (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 3
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The ability to perceive discrete sound streams in the presence of competing sound sources relies on multiple mechanisms that organize the mixture of the auditory input entering the ears. Many studies have focused on mechanisms that contribute to integrating sounds that belong together into one perceptual stream (integration) and segregating those that come from different sound sources (segregation). However, little is known about mechanisms that allow us to perceive individual sound sources with...
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#1Elyse S. Sussman (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 36
#2S. Chen (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 1
Last. Elizabeth A. Dinces (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 5
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The goal of this review article is to redefine what the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials reflects in auditory scene analysis, and to provide an overview of how the MMN serves as a valuable tool in Cognitive Neuroscience research. In doing so, some of the old beliefs (five common 鈥榤yths鈥) about MMN will be dispelled, such as the notion that MMN is a simple feature discriminator and that attention itself modulates MMN elicitation. A revised description of what MMN tr...
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It has been debated on the basis of change-detection procedures whether visual working memory is limited by the number of objects, task-relevant attributes within those objects, or bindings between attributes. This debate, however, has been hampered by several limitations, including the use of conditions that vary between studies and the absence of appropriate mathematical models to estimate the number of items in working memory in different stimulus conditions. We re-examined working memory lim...
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a b s t r a c t When people experience an unchanging sensory input for a long period of time, their perception tends to switch stochastically and unavoidably between alternative interpretations of the sensation; a phe- nomenon known as perceptual bi-stability or multi-stability. The huge variability in the experimental data obtained in such paradigms makes it difficult to distinguish typical patterns of behaviour, or to iden- tify differences between switching patterns. Here we propose a new app...
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#2Edward F. Chang (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 60
The neural correlates of how attended speech is internally represented are described, shedding light on the 鈥榗ocktail party problem鈥. The 'cocktail-party problem' 鈥 the question of what goes on in our brains when we listen selectively for one person's voice while ignoring many others 鈥 has puzzled researchers from various disciplines for years. Using electrophysiological recordings from neurosurgery patients listening to two speakers simultaneously, Nima Mesgarani and Edward Chang determine the ...
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#1Elyse S. Sussman (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 36
#2Mitchell Steinschneider (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 34
Auditory scene analysis begins in infancy, making it possible for the baby to distinguish its mother's voice from other noises in the environment. Despite the importance of this process for human behavior, the question of how perceptual sound organization develops during childhood is not well understood. The current study investigated the role of attention for perceiving sound streams in a group of school-aged children and young adults. We behaviorally determined the frequency separation at whic...
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#1J. Scott Saults (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 30
#2Nelson Cowan (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 64
If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array comparison task in 5 experiments. Participants were to remember only the visual, only the auditory (unimodal memory conditions), or both arrays (bimodal mem...
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The question of whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) is modulated by attention has been debated for over a decade. Although the MMN is widely regarded as reflecting a preattentive auditory process, many studies have shown attention effects on MMN. So, what does preattentive mean if attention can modulate the MMN? To understand the function of MMN in auditory processing, we need to shed new light on the "MMN and attention" debate. This review will discuss the apparent paradox that MMN can be mod...
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Dynamic Attending Theory suggests that predicting the timing of upcoming sounds can assist in focusing attention towards them. However, whether similar predictive processes are also applied to background noises and assist in guiding attention away from potential distractors, remains an open question. Here we address this question by manipulating the temporal predictability of distractor sounds in a dichotic listening selective attention task. We tested the influence of distractors temporal predi...
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Processing speech in multi-speaker environments poses substantial challenges to the human perceptual and attention system. Moreover, different contexts may require employing different listening strategies. For instance, in some cases individuals pay attention Selectively to one speaker and attempt to ignore all other task-irrelevant sounds, whereas other contexts may require listeners to Distribute their attention among several speakers. Spatial and spectral acoustic cues both play an important ...
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Abstract In the natural environment, attended sounds tend to be perceived much better than unattended sounds. However, the physiological mechanism of how our neural systems direct the state of perceptual attention to prepare for the detection of upcoming acoustic stimuli before auditory stream segregation remains elusive. In this study, based on the direct intracerebral recordings from the auditory cortex in eight epileptic patients with refractory focal seizures, we investigated the neural proc...
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Research in speech perception has explored how knowledge of a language influences phonetic perception. The current study investigated whether such linguistic influences extend to the perceptual (sequential) organization of speech. Listeners heard sinewave analogs of word pairs (e.g., loose seam, which contains a single [s] frication but is perceived as two /s/ phonemes) cycle continuously, which causes the stimulus to split apart into foreground and background percepts. They had to identify the ...
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The ability to detect regularities in sound (i.e., recurring structure) is critical for effective perception, enabling, for example, change detection and prediction. Two seemingly unconnected lines of research concern the neural operations involved in processing regularities: one investigates how neural activity synchronizes with temporal regularities (e.g., frequency modulation; FM) in sounds, whereas the other focuses on increases in sustained activity during stimulation with repeating tone-fr...
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Purpose The purpose of this introduction is to provide an overview of the articles contained within this research forum of JSLHR. Each of these articles is based upon presentations from the 2016 AS...
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