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More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas

Published on Oct 18, 2017in PLOS ONE 2.77
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0185809
Caspar A. Hallmann7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
Martin Sorg1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 9 AuthorsHans de Kroon45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
Global declines in insects have sparked wide interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services. Our understanding of the extent and underlying causes of this decline is based on the abundance of single species or taxonomic groups only, rather than changes in insect biomass which is more relevant for ecological functioning. Here, we used a standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany (96 unique location-year combinations) to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna. Our analysis estimates a seasonal decline of 76%, and mid-summer decline of 82% in flying insect biomass over the 27 years of study. We show that this decline is apparent regardless of habitat type, while changes in weather, land use, and habitat characteristics cannot explain this overall decline. This yet unrecognized loss of insect biomass must be taken into account in evaluating declines in abundance of species depending on insects as a food source, and ecosystem functioning in the European landscape.
  • References (54)
  • Citations (234)
Published on Jan 1, 2003
Martyn Plummer1
Estimated H-index: 1
JAGS is a program for Bayesian Graphical modelling which aims for compatibility with Classic BUGS. The program could eventually be developed as an R package. This article explains the motivations for this program, briefly describes the architecture and then discusses some ideas for a vectorized form of the BUGS language.
1,690 Citations
Published on Sep 1, 2001in Biodiversity and Conservation 2.83
Martin Brändle23
Estimated H-index: 23
Uwe Amarell1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsRoland Brandl49
Estimated H-index: 49
We analysed species richness of plants and true bugs (Insecta, Heteroptera) along a pollution gradient in Scots pine stands in Central Germany. As a consequence of particulate deposition, pH-values of soils increased in the vicinity of the emission source. Therefore, emission increased productivity. Species richness of plants increased with decreasing distance from emission source, and thus with increasing productivity. Similarly, species richness of herbivorous Heteroptera increased with decrea...
27 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2001in Nature 41.58
Martin Warren27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Butterfly Conservation),
Jane K. Hill54
Estimated H-index: 54
(University of York)
+ 12 AuthorsPaul T. Harding8
Estimated H-index: 8
Habitat degradation and climate change are thought to be altering the distributions and abundances of animals and plants throughout the world, but their combined impacts have not been assessed for any species assemblage1,2,3,4. Here we evaluated changes in the distribution sizes and abundances of 46 species of butterflies that approach their northern climatic range margins in Britain—where changes in climate and habitat are opposing forces. These insects might be expected to have responded posit...
914 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Chris van Swaay23
Estimated H-index: 23
Arco J. van Strien22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 25 AuthorsGiedrius Švitra5
Estimated H-index: 5
This report presents the European Grassland Butterfly Indicator, based on national Butterfly Monitoring Schemes (BMS) in 19 countries across Europe, most of them in the European Union. The indicator shows that since 1990 till 2011 butterfly populations have declined by almost 50 %, indicating a dramatic loss of grassland biodiversity. This also means the situation has not improved since the first version of the indicator published in 2005. Of the 17 species, 8 have declined in Europe, 2 have rem...
26 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 20, 2002in Global Ecology and Biogeography 5.96
Michael D. Morecroft35
Estimated H-index: 35
(University of Oxford),
C. E. Bealey1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Defence Evaluation and Research Agency)
+ 2 AuthorsI. P. Woiwod1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Hertfordshire)
Abstract Aim We examined the effects of drought in the summer of 1995 and the subsequent year on contrasting species of plants, moths, butterflies and ground beetles. We tested whether population increases were associated with: (a) species of warm environments (b) species of dry environments (c) species with rapid reproduction (d) species with high rates of dispersal. Location The study was conducted at Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites throughout Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Metho...
66 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2004in Conservation Biology 5.89
James Battin4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Northern Arizona University)
The concept of the ecological trap, a low-quality habitat that animals prefer over other available habitats of higher quality, has appeared in the ecological literature irregularly for over 30 years, but the topic has received relatively little attention, and evidence for traps remains largely anecdotal. Recently, however, the ecological trap concept has been the subject of a flurry of theoretical activity that is likely to raise its profile substantially, particularly in conservation biology. E...
611 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 7, 2015in Journal of Statistical Software 22.74
Douglas M. Bates30
Estimated H-index: 30
Martin Mächler15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 1 AuthorsSteven C. Walker10
Estimated H-index: 10
Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R, the model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed- and random-effects terms. The formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profiled REML criterion can be evalua...
11.1k Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2008in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
Sven G. Nilsson39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Lund University),
Markus Franzén19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Lund University),
Emma Jönsson1
Estimated H-index: 1
1. Land-use change in 450 ha in southern Sweden between 1814 and 2004 was recorded. Butterflies and burnet moths were surveyed in 1904–1913 and 2001–2005. 2. We explore if local extinctions were related to land-use changes and species attributes. 3. Land use changed drastically over the 190-year period, and the largest relative change occurred for hay meadows with late harvest, which decreased from 28% to 0%. The area changed from grasslands and grazed forests to being dominated by timber forest...
51 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2008in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 3.54
Martin U. Grüebler4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Zurich),
Muriel Morand1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
Beat Naef-Daenzer22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
This paper presents a model to predict the daily spatio-temporal variation in the abundance of airborne insects in agricultural landscapes on the basis of publicly available environmental data. Data on the abundance of insects flying near ground level were collected by a robust and effective point-count method. The validation of the model using extra data revealed a high correspondence between predicted and observed insect density. The final model showed that the abundance of airborne insects de...
59 Citations Source Cite
Cited By234
Published on May 1, 2018in Information Fusion 6.64
Fani Deligianni14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Imperial College London),
Charence Wong6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Imperial College London)
+ 1 AuthorsGuang-Zhong Yang55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Imperial College London)
A two-step approach for modelling spatio-temporal GRFs distributions and foot angle.Fusion of e-AR signal and video to model the foot angle during key gait events.Invariant features of angular information from video recordings improve performance. Gait analysis plays an important role in several conditions, including the rehabilitation of patients with orthopaedic problems and the monitoring of neurological conditions, mental health problems and the well-being of elderly subjects. It also consti...
Source Cite
Published on Dec 11, 2018in PeerJ 2.12
Javier Montero-Pau11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Valencia),
Africa Gómez30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Hull),
Manuel Serra30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Valencia)
Populations of passively dispersed organisms in continental aquatic habitats typically show high levels of neutral genetic differentiation, despite their high dispersal capabilities. Several evolutionary factors, including founder events and local adaptation, and life cycle features such as high population growth rates and the presence of propagule banks, have been proposed to be responsible for this paradox. Here, we have modeled the colonization process in these organisms to assess the impact ...
Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Ecology and Evolution 2.34
Debora Arlt16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences),
Tomas Pärt40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
Warmer springs may cause animals to become mistimed if advances of spring timing, including available resources and of timing of breeding occur at different speed. We used thermal sums (cumulative sum of degree days) during spring to describe the thermal progression (timing) of spring and investigate its relationship to breeding phenology and demography of a long-distant migrant bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.). We first compare 20-year trends in spring timing, breeding time, s...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Science of The Total Environment 4.61
Jonas Jourdan7
Estimated H-index: 7
(American Museum of Natural History),
Robert B. O'Hara5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
+ 12 AuthorsFrancesca Pilotto9
Estimated H-index: 9
(American Museum of Natural History)
Abstract Long-term observations on riverine benthic invertebrate communities enable assessments of the potential impacts of global change on stream ecosystems. Besides increasing average temperatures, many studies predict greater temperature extremes and intense precipitation events as a consequence of climate change. In this study we examined long-term observation data (10–32 years) of 26 streams and rivers from four ecoregions in the European Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) network, to in...
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Annals of Applied Biology 2.05
Simon R. Leather38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Harper Adams University)
Research into insect decline over the years indicates increased funding is required for long term monitoring and more research to support sustainable agriculture. Planning authorities need to consider how to mitigate the impact of urbanisation and roads on invertebrate populations.
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2018in Biological Conservation 4.66
Jan Christian Habel25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Technische Universität München),
Thomas Schmitt26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Abstract Biodiversity is declining, with major causes identified as habitat loss and a reduction of habitat quality. Recent studies have shown that particularly species with specific habitat demands are suffering in this way. Accordingly, habitat specialists have been nominated as umbrella species, which because they represent a much larger number of species, are thought best to fulfil the requirements of nature conservation. However, species which are ecologically intermediate between habitat s...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Gcb Bioenergy 5.42
M. Nahm11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Freiburg),
Christopher Morhart5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Freiburg)
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Biodiversity and Conservation 2.83
Jean-François Alignan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique),
Jean-François Debras5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
+ 1 AuthorsThierry Dutoit25
Estimated H-index: 25
Given that biological conservation cannot prevent the full range of negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological restoration is nowadays commonly acknowledged as a necessary tool for conservation purposes. Here, we report on an ecological rehabilitation project in the La Crau area (south-eastern France), beginning in 2009 when a former industrial orchard (357 ha) was rehabilitated into a Mediterranean rangeland. We assessed the effect of ecological rehabilitation and different additional restora...
1 Citations Source Cite