IL-6–Type Cytokine Signaling in Adipocytes Induces Intestinal GLP-1 Secretion
We recently showed that interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes induces free fatty acid release from visceral adipocytes, thereby promoting obesity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. In addition, IL-6-type cytokines may increase the release of leptin from adipocytes and by those means induce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. We thus hypothesized that IL-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes may regulate insulin secretion. To this end, mice with adipocyte-specific knockout of gp130, the signal transducer protein of IL-6, were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Compared with control littermates, knockout mice showed impaired glucose tolerance and circulating leptin, GLP-1, and insulin levels were reduced. In line, leptin release from isolated adipocytes was reduced, and intestinal proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (Pcsk1) expression, the gene encoding PC1/3, which controls GLP-1 production, was decreased in knockout mice. Importantly, treatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 abolished the observed difference in glucose tolerance between control and knockout mice. Ex vivo, supernatant collected from isolated adipocytes of gp130 knockout mice blunted Pcsk1 expression and GLP-1 release from GLUTag cells. In contrast, glucose- and GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected in islets of knockout mice. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific IL-6 signaling induces intestinal GLP-1 release to enhance insulin secretion, thereby counteracting insulin resistance in obesity.