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The science of science: From the perspective of complex systems

Published on Nov 1, 2017in Physics Reports28.30
· DOI :10.1016/j.physrep.2017.10.001
An Zeng17
Estimated H-index: 17
(BNU: Beijing Normal University),
Zhesi Shen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 4 AuthorsH. Eugenestanley114
Estimated H-index: 114
(BU: Boston University)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract The science of science (SOS) is a rapidly developing field which aims to understand, quantify and predict scientific research and the resulting outcomes. The problem is essentially related to almost all scientific disciplines and thus has attracted attention of scholars from different backgrounds. Progress on SOS will lead to better solutions for many challenging issues, ranging from the selection of candidate faculty members by a university to the development of research fields to which a country should give priority. While different measurements have been designed to evaluate the scientific impact of scholars, journals and academic institutions, the multiplex structure, dynamics and evolution mechanisms of the whole system have been much less studied until recently. In this article, we review the recent advances in SOS, aiming to cover the topics from empirical study, network analysis, mechanistic models, ranking, prediction, and many important related issues. The results summarized in this review significantly deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and statistical rules governing the science system. Finally, we review the forefront of SOS research and point out the specific difficulties as they arise from different contexts, so as to stimulate further efforts in this emerging interdisciplinary field.
  • References (452)
  • Citations (32)
Cite
References452
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Nature43.07
Oren Etzioni67
Estimated H-index: 67
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Scientometrics2.77
Mengjiao Qi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BNU: Beijing Normal University),
An Zeng17
Estimated H-index: 17
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
+ 2 AuthorsZengru Di20
Estimated H-index: 20
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
Collaboration is one of the key features in scientific research. With more and more knowledge accumulated in each discipline, individual researcher can only be an expert in some specific areas. As such, there are more and more multi-author papers nowadays. Many works in scientometrics have been devoted to analyze the structure of collaboration networks. However, how the collaboration impacts an author's future career is much less studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide empirical evi...
Published on May 1, 2017in Journal of Informetrics3.88
Menghui Li12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Liying Yang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 3 AuthorsJinshan Wu11
Estimated H-index: 11
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
In this work, we extend our previous work on largeness tracing among physicists to other fields, namely mathematics, economics and biomedical science. Overall, the results confirm our previous discovery, indicating that scientists in all these fields trace large topics. Surprisingly, however, it seems that researchers in mathematics tend to be more likely to trace large topics than those in the other fields. We also find that on average, papers in top journals are less largeness-driven. We compa...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Science Advances
Satyam Mukherjee9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NU: Northwestern University),
Daniel M. Romero15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UM: University of Michigan)
+ 1 AuthorsBrian Uzzi34
Estimated H-index: 34
(NU: Northwestern University)
Scientists and inventors can draw on an ever-expanding literature for the building blocks of tomorrow’s ideas, yet little is known about how combinations of past work are related to future discoveries. Our analysis parameterizes the age distribution of a work’s references and revealed three links between the age of prior knowledge and hit papers and patents. First, works that cite literature with a low mean age and high age variance are in a citation “hotspot”; these works double their likelihoo...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Nature Communications11.88
Antoine Allard11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
M. Ángeles Serrano22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 1 AuthorsMarián Boguñá35
Estimated H-index: 35
Complex networks have been conjectured to be hidden in metric spaces, which offer geometric interpretation of networks’ topologies. Here the authors extend this concept to weighted networks, providing empirical evidence on the metric natures of weights, which are shown to be reproducible by a gravity model.
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Nature43.07
Paula E. Stephan36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
Reinhilde Veugelers28
Estimated H-index: 28
,
Jian Wang11
Estimated H-index: 11
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Scientometrics2.77
Dejian Yu16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics),
Wanru Wang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics)
+ 2 AuthorsRongyu Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics)
Important journals usually guide the research and development directions in academic circles. Therefore, it is necessary to find the important journals among a number of academic journals. This study presents a model named the multiple-link, mutually reinforced journal-ranking (MLMRJR) model based on the PageRank and the Hyperlink-Induced Topics Search algorithms that considers not only the quantity and quality of citations in intra-networks, but also the mutual reinforcement in inter-networks. ...
Published on Mar 31, 2017in Physical Review Letters9.23
Vincenzo Nicosia23
Estimated H-index: 23
,
Per Sebastian Skardal10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 1 AuthorsVito Latora57
Estimated H-index: 57
We introduce a framework to intertwine dynamical processes of different nature, each with its own distinct network topology, using a multilayer network approach. As an example of collective phenomena emerging from the interactions of multiple dynamical processes, we study a model where neural dynamics and nutrient transport are bidirectionally coupled in such a way that the allocation of the transport process at one layer depends on the degree of synchronization at the other layer, and vice vers...
Published on Mar 8, 2017in Physical Review E2.35
Maksim Kitsak12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Fragkiskos Papadopoulos11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Dmitri V. Krioukov25
Estimated H-index: 25
Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied, compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode proj...
Published on Feb 3, 2017in Science41.04
Aaron Clauset30
Estimated H-index: 30
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Daniel B. Larremore14
Estimated H-index: 14
(SFI: Santa Fe Institute),
Roberta Sinatra16
Estimated H-index: 16
(NU: Northeastern University)
The desire to predict discoveries—to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where—pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the “science of science” and what it teaches us about the predictability of scientific discovery. We then discuss future opportunities for improving predictions derived from the sc...
Cited By32
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Palgrave Communications
Shuanglei Wu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UQ: University of Queensland),
Yongping Wei19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UQ: University of Queensland)
+ 2 AuthorsScott Hanna (UQ: University of Queensland)
Technology developments have made significant impacts on both humans and the environment in which they live. However, there is limited whole-of-system understanding of ancient technology development. This paper aims to uncover the evolutionary pattern of the ancient Chinese agricultural technology system that focused on land and water mobilisations from 8000 BC to 1911 AD. Our findings show that agricultural technology in China transitioned through an extremely slow, S-shaped pathway, increasing...
Published on Apr 18, 2019in Scientific Data
Jichao Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University),
Yian Yin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
+ 1 AuthorsDashun Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
A central question in the science of science concerns how to develop a quantitative understanding of the evolution and impact of individual careers. Over the course of history, a relatively small fraction of individuals have made disproportionate, profound, and lasting impacts on science and society. Despite a long-standing interest in the careers of scientific elites across diverse disciplines, it remains difficult to collect large-scale career histories that could serve as training sets for sy...
Published on Dec 10, 2018in arXiv: Physics and Society
An Zeng17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Zhesi Shen6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 5 AuthorsShlomo Havlin99
Estimated H-index: 99
We analyze the publication records of individual scientists, aiming to quantify the topic switching dynamics of scientists and its influence. For each scientist, the relations among her publications are characterized via shared references. We find that the co-citing network of the papers of a scientist exhibits a clear community structure where each major community represents a research topic. Our analysis suggests that scientists tend to have a narrow distribution of the number of topics. Howev...
Published on Nov 1, 2019in Computer Science Review
Jiaying Liu3
Estimated H-index: 3
(DUT: Dalian University of Technology),
Xiangjie Kong15
Estimated H-index: 15
(DUT: Dalian University of Technology)
+ 5 AuthorsFeng Xia30
Estimated H-index: 30
(DUT: Dalian University of Technology)
Abstract Data Mining and Information Retrieval is an emerging interdisciplinary discipline dealing with Information Retrieval and Data Mining techniques. It has undergone rapid development with the advances in mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of publication metadata obtained from 6 top-tier journals and 9 conferences for the first 16 years of the 21st Century, and evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Data Minin...
Published on Jul 13, 2019in Scientometrics2.77
Zheng Xie (National University of Defense Technology)
This study provided a game model to simulate the evolution of coauthorship networks, which is a geometric hypergraph built on a circle. A fraction of nodes are randomly selected to attach an arc to express their reputation. The cooperation condition of a new node and existing nodes depends on their distance and the existing nodes’ reputation. The condition gives an expression of kin selection and network reciprocity, two typical mechanisms of cooperation. The size of a node’s reputation is expre...
Published on May 30, 2019in Scientometrics2.77
Yanmeng Xing (BNU: Beijing Normal University), An Zeng17
Estimated H-index: 17
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
+ 1 AuthorsZengru Di20
Estimated H-index: 20
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
Survivability is one of the features for success in contemporary science ecosystem. In this paper, we analyze the publication records of physicists in American Physical Society journals, aiming to identify the career length of each researcher and accordingly investigate the dropout phenomenon in science by the example of physicists. We find that scientific career is a complex nonlinear evolution process and can be generally divided into four stages regarding the dropout rate. In the early career...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in SoftwareX
Michael E. Rose1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MPG: Max Planck Society),
John R. Kitchin
Abstract We present a wrapper for the Scopus RESTful API written for Python 3. The wrapper allows users to access the Scopus database via user-friendly interfaces and can be used without prior knowledge of RESTful APIs. The package provides classes to interact with different Scopus APIs to retrieve information as diverse as citation counts, author information or document abstracts. Files are cached to speed up subsequent analysis. The package addresses all users of Scopus data, such as researche...
Published on 2019in Heliyon
Yurij L. Katchanov2
Estimated H-index: 2
(HSE: National Research University – Higher School of Economics),
Yulia V. Markova2
Estimated H-index: 2
(American Association for the Advancement of Science),
Natalia Shmatko4
Estimated H-index: 4
(HSE: National Research University – Higher School of Economics)
Abstract Recently, there has been a surge of interest in new data emerged due to the rapid development of the information technologies in scholarly communication. Since the 2010s, altmetrics has become a common trend in scientometric research. However, researchers have not treated in much detail the question of the probability distributions underlying these new data. The principal objective of this study was to investigate one of the classic problems of scientometrics—the problem of citation and...