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The Antiviral and Cancer Genomic DNA Deaminase APOBEC3H Is Regulated by an RNA-Mediated Dimerization Mechanism

Published on Jan 1, 2018in Molecular Cell14.548
· DOI :10.1016/j.molcel.2017.12.010
Nadine M. Shaban10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Ke Shi16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
+ 10 AuthorsReuben S. Harris59
Estimated H-index: 59
Sources
Abstract
Summary Human APOBEC3H and homologous single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases are unique to mammals. These DNA-editing enzymes function in innate immunity by restricting the replication of viruses and transposons. APOBEC3H also contributes to cancer mutagenesis. Here, we address the fundamental nature of RNA in regulating human APOBEC3H activities. APOBEC3H co-purifies with RNA as an inactive protein, and RNase A treatment enables strong DNA deaminase activity. RNA-binding-defective mutants demonstrate clear separation of function by becoming DNA hypermutators. Biochemical and crystallographic data demonstrate a mechanism in which double-stranded RNA mediates enzyme dimerization. Additionally, APOBEC3H separation-of-function mutants show that RNA binding is required for cytoplasmic localization, packaging into HIV-1 particles, and antiviral activity. Overall, these results support a model in which structured RNA negatively regulates the potentially harmful DNA deamination activity of APOBEC3H while, at the same time, positively regulating its antiviral activity.
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  • Citations (16)
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#1Yuqing Feng (U of S: University of Saskatchewan)H-Index: 9
#2Mariam H. Goubran (U of S: University of Saskatchewan)H-Index: 1
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The APOBEC3 family of cytosine deaminase enzymes are able to restrict replication of retroelements, such as LINE-1. However, each of the seven APOBEC3 enzymes have been reported to act differentially to prevent LINE-1 retrotransposition and the mechanisms of APOBEC3-mediated LINE-1 inhibition has not been well understood. The prevailing view for many years was that APOBEC3-mediated LINE-1 inhibition was deamination-independent and relied on APOBEC3s blocking the LINE-1 reverse transcriptase DNA ...
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Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody diversification. Mechanisms of AID targeting and catalysis remain elusive despite its critical immunological roles and off-target effects in tumorigenesis. Here, we produced active human AID and revealed its preferred recognition and deamination of structured substrates. G-quadruplex (G4)-containing substrates mimicking the mammalian immunoglobulin switc...
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#1Yusuke Nakano (Kyoto University)H-Index: 7
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APOBEC3 (A3) family proteins are DNA cytosine deaminases recognized for contributing to HIV-1 restriction and mutation. Prior studies have demonstrated that A3D, A3F, and A3G enzymes elicit a robust anti-HIV-1 effect in cell cultures and in humanized mouse models. Human A3H is polymorphic and can be categorized into three phenotypes: stable, intermediate, and unstable. However, the anti-viral effect of endogenous A3H in vivo has yet to be examined. Here we utilize a hematopoietic stem cell-trans...
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Humans encode proteins, called restriction factors, that inhibit replication of viruses such as HIV-1. The members of one family of antiviral proteins, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; shortened here to A3), act by deaminating cytidines to uridines during the reverse transcription reaction of HIV-1. The A3 locus encodes seven genes, named A3A to A3H These genes have either one or two cytidine deaminase domains, and several of these A3s potently restrict...
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