Quorum sensing inhibitors: can endophytes be prospective sources?
Endophytes are microbes which reside inside the plant tissues asymptomatically or causing pathogenicity to the host plant for a brief period. Owing to their presence in a specialized niche, endophytes are capable of synthesizing diverse types of bioactive molecules. Continuous development of resistance mechanism by pathogens to the currently available health treatments and pharmaceuticals has led researchers to explore new therapeutic agents. Quorum sensing has a role in the development of microbial pathogenic traits including biofilm formation. Utilization of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors in antivirulence approach against pathogenesis is one of the innovative strategies. Endophytic microbes provide a plethora of such required bioactive molecules. This review summarizes the bioprospecting of endophytic microbes for production of novel QS inhibitors. At the outset, an overview is presented about the QS and QS inhibition followed by a summary on the endophytes as a treasure trove of bioactive metabolites, particularly the QS inhibitors. Next, we have outlined screening, purification, production, and application of QS inhibitors starting from the isolation of endophytic microbes. There is huge prospect for endophytes in the domain of human healthcare and food industry, provided that we develop a comprehensive understanding of the biology of endophyte and its ecosystem.