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Precision genome-editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in human induced pluripotent stem cells

Published on Sep 12, 2017in bioRxiv
· DOI :10.1101/187377
John P. Budde22
Estimated H-index: 22
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis),
Rita Martinez3
Estimated H-index: 3
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
+ 6 AuthorsCeleste M. Karch25
Estimated H-index: 25
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
Abstract
Genome engineering in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent an opportunity to examine the contribution of pathogenic and disease modifying alleles to molecular and cellular phenotypes. However, the practical application of genome-editing approaches in human iPSCs has been challenging. We have developed a precise and efficient genome-editing platform that relies on allele-specific guideRNAs (gRNAs) paired with a robust method for culturing and screening the modified iPSC clones. By applying an allele-specific gRNA design strategy, we have demonstrated greatly improved editing efficiency without the introduction of additional modifications of unknown consequence in the genome. Using this approach, we have modified nine independent iPSC lines at five loci associated with neurodegeneration. This genome-editing platform allows for efficient and precise production of isogenic cell lines for disease modeling. Because the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 on off-target sites remains poorly understood, we went on to perform thorough off-target profiling by comparing the mutational burden in edited iPSC lines using whole genome sequencing. The bioinformatically predicted off-target sites were unmodified in all edited iPSC lines. We also found that the numbers of de novo genetic variants detected in the edited and unedited iPSC lines were similar. Thus, our CRISPR/Cas9 strategy does not specifically increase the mutational burden. Furthermore, our analyses of the de novo genetic variants that occur during iPSC culture and genome-editing indicate an enrichment of de novo variants at sites identified in dbSNP. Taken together, we propose that this enrichment represents regions of the genome more susceptible to mutation. Herein, we present an efficient and precise method for allele-specific genome-editing in iPSC and an analyses pipeline to distinguish off-target events from de novo mutations occurring with culture.
  • References (42)
  • Citations (2)
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References42
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NB is the Herbert Cohn Chair in Cancer Research and was partially supported by The Rosetrees Trust and The Azrieli Foundation. Costs associated with acquiring and sequencing hESC lines were supported by HHMI and the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research. FTM, SAM, and KE were supported by grants from the NIH (HL109525, 5P01GM099117, 5K99NS08371). KE was supported by the Miller consortium of the HSCI and FTM is currently supported by funds from the Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Council (...
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Background Genome editors such as CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs are at the forefront of research into methodologies for targeted modification of the mammalian genome. To date few comparative studies have been carried out to investigate the difference of genome editing characteristics between CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs. While the CRISPR/Cas9 system has overtaken TALENs as the tool of choice for most research groups working in this field, we hypothesized that there could be certain applications whereby the a...
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