Lube oil chemistry influences on autoignition as measured in an ignition quality tester
Published on Jan 1, 2019
· DOI :10.1016/j.proci.2018.06.165
Abstract Derived Cetane Numbers (DCNs) of engine lubricating oil/multicomponent 95 Research Octane Number (RON) gasoline surrogate mixtures were measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). Measurements separately assess the effects of calcium- and magnesium-based detergent additive fraction, oil viscosity, oil degradation, and base oil classification on mixture ignition propensity at conditions with relevance to low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in gasoline engines. Testing of 0–25% (by mass) oil blended into a six-component surrogate mixture representing an unleaded “average” European gasoline blend is used to determine sensitivity of DCN responses to variations in the properties. With one exception, mixture DCNs were found to increase with lubricating oil content. Despite variation in calcium and magnesium concentrations, DCN responses for all oil blends indicate no statistically significant effect of either calcium or magnesium. Similarly, neither aging of nor peroxide addition to the oil yields significant DCN changes compared to untreated oils. However, a distinct response is found for variations in the base lubricant chemical structural properties. At 25% oil blending with gasoline surrogate, the measured DCNs (RONs) of different group base oils range from 19.6 (95.7) to 42.1 (46.2). The DCN increases with increasing base oil API Group Number (I through IV); however, mixture DCN was found to decrease for a 25% blend of Group V-B with the gasoline surrogate. Using quantitative 1 H NMR, the Group Number trend is interpreted to be a consequence of linear vs. branched character of the paraffinic base oil composition. Taken together, the present results indicate that at ASTM D6890 DCN test conditions, there is no significant ignition effect attributable to reasonable variations in the lubricant's calcium or magnesium content, viscosity, or degree of degradation. Instead, the isomeric character of the paraffinic base oil appears to be most significant in controlling lubricant autoignition properties relative to those of gasolines.