A calpain inhibitor protects against fractalkine production in lipopolysaccharide-treated endothelial cells
Published on Sep 30, 2017in Kidney research and clinical practice
· DOI :10.23876/j.krcp.2017.36.3.224
Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine with a unique CX3C motif and is produced by endothelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and interferon-γ. There have been several reports that the caspase/calpain system is activated in endotoxemia, which leads to cellular apoptosis and acute inflammatory processes. We aimed to determine the role of the caspase/calpain system in cell viability and regulation of fractalkine production in LPS-treated endothelial cells.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated with 0.01-100 μg/mL of LPS to determine cell viability. The changes of CX3CL1 expression were compared in control, LPS (1 μg/mL)-, IL-1α (1 μg/mL)-, and IL-1β (1 μg/mL)-treated HUVECs. Cell viability and CX3CL1 production were compared with 50 μM of inhibitors of caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, and calpain in LPS-treated HUVECs.Cell viability was significantly decreased from 1 to 100 μg/mL of LPS. Cell viability was significantly restored with inhibitors of caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, and calpain in LPS-treated HUVECs. The expression of CX3CL1 was highest in IL-1β-treated HUVECs. CX3CL1 production was highly inhibited with a calpain inhibitor and significantly decreased with the individual inhibitors of caspase-1, caspase-3, and caspase-9.The caspase/calpain system is an important modulator of cell viability and CX3CL1 production in LPS-treated endothelial cells.