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The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE)

Published on Dec 9, 2017in The Lancet59.102
· DOI :10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31610-0
Nickhill Bhakta12
Estimated H-index: 12
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital),
Qi Liu24
Estimated H-index: 24
(U of A: University of Alberta)
+ 26 AuthorsLeslie L. Robison118
Estimated H-index: 118
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital)
Sources
Abstract
Summary Background Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Methods The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015. Age-matched and sex-frequency-matched community controls were used for comparison. 21 treatment exposure variables were included in the analysis, with data abstracted from medical records. 168 CHCs for all participants were graded for severity using a modified Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events. Multiple imputation with predictive mean matching was used for missing occurrences and grades of CHCs in the survivors who were not clinically evaluable. Mean cumulative count was used for descriptive cumulative burden analysis and marked-point-process regression was used for inferential cumulative burden analysis. Findings Of 5522 patients treated for childhood cancer at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who had complete records, survived 10 years or longer, and were 18 years or older at time of study, 3010 (54·5%) were alive, had enrolled, and had had prospective clinical assessment. 2512 (45·5%) of the 5522 patients were not clinically evaluable. The cumulative incidence of CHCs at age 50 years was 99·9% (95% CI 99·9–99·9) for grade 1–5 CHCs and 96·0% (95% CI 95·3–96·8%) for grade 3–5 CHCs. By age 50 years, a survivor had experienced, on average, 17·1 (95% CI 16·2–18·1) CHCs of any grade, of which 4·7 (4·6–4·9) were CHCs of grade 3–5. The cumulative burden in matched community controls of grade 1–5 CHCs was 9·2 (95% CI 7·9–10·6; p vs total study population) and of grade 3–5 CHCs was 2·3 (1·9–2·7, p vs total study population). Second neoplasms, spinal disorders, and pulmonary disease were major contributors to the excess total cumulative burden. Notable heterogeneity in the distribution of CHC burden in survivors with differing primary cancer diagnoses was observed. The cumulative burden of grade 1–5 CHCs at age 50 years was highest in survivors of CNS malignancies (24·2 [95% CI 20·9–27·5]) and lowest in survivors of germ cell tumours (14·0 [11·5–16·6]). Multivariable analyses showed that older age at diagnosis, treatment era, and higher doses of brain and chest radiation are significantly associated with a greater cumulative burden and severity of CHCs. Interpretation The burden of CHCs in survivors of childhood cancer is substantial and highly variable. Our assessment of total cumulative burden in survivors of paediatric cancer, with detailed characterisation of long-term CHCs, provide data to better inform future clinical guidelines, research investigations, and health services planning for this vulnerable, medically complex population. Funding The US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.
  • References (27)
  • Citations (127)
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References27
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Characterization of toxicity associated with cancer and its treatment is essential to quantify risk, inform optimization of therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed patients, and guide health surveillance recommendations for long-term survivors. The NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provides a common rubric for grading severity of adverse outcomes in cancer patients that is widely used in clinical trials. The CTCAE has also been used to assess late cancer treatment-rel...
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Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts...
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With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning the risks of adverse long-term sequelae of the life-saving treatments in order to provide optimal screening and care and to identify and provide adequate interventions. Childhood cancer survivor cohor...
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