A Conditional Process Analysis of the Teacher Confirmation–Student Learning Relationship
Students enter college with varying degrees of academic self-efficacy, which influences how they respond to effective teaching behaviors. Teacher confirmation is one behavior that has received increased attention because it is thought to indirectly enhance students’ learning by reducing their receiver apprehension in the classroom. Findings from 208 college students supported the hypothesized indirect effects between teacher confirmation and students’ perceived learning through reduced receiver apprehension, but conditional process analyses revealed these indirect effects were moderated by students’ academic self-efficacy. These findings suggest the effectiveness of teacher confirmation behaviors varies among students, with those who lack academic self-efficacy deriving fewer of the intended educational benefits.