Geochemistry and fluid inclusions of scheelite-mineralized granodiorite porphyries from southern Anhui Province, China
Abstract We report petrological, cathodoluminescence (CL), major and trace element analyses and fluid inclusion studies on scheelite (W)-mineralized granodiorite porphyries from Dongyuan and Zhuxiling, southern Anhui Province (China). In Dongyuan, the larger part of the granodiorite porphyry body is mineralized with W concentrations up to 1140 g/t (total WO 3 reserves >140 000 tonnes), whereas in Zhuxiling mineralization is spatially more limited. All mineralized rocks are strongly altered, containing abundant calcite and no fresh plagioclase. W-mineralized rocks show higher K, Pb and lower Na, Sr, Ti contents compared to the non-mineralized ones. Co-variations between mobile elements (K, Na, Pb, Sr, Rb, etc.) and W, combined with petrological observations, demonstrate that fluid alteration must have controlled the mineralization. In quartz from both deposits 4 types of fluid inclusions have been recognized, i.e., aqueous-carbonic (WC-type), aqueous (W-type, subdivided into Wm-type containing minor detected CO 2 and Wn containing no CO 2 ), carbonic (pure CO 2 , C-type) and late secondary aqueous inclusions (LW-type). WC- and LW-type inclusions represent the original magmatic fluids and meteoric waters, respectively. The other inclusions represent evolved magmatic fluids which are closely related to alteration and mineralization. WC-, Wm- and Wn-type inclusions show higher salinity and lower homogenization temperatures, indicating fluid immiscibility with CO 2 effervescence. Additionally, during plagioclase alteration and precipitation of K-feldspar and sericite the K/Na ratio is lowered and Ca released. The precipitation of scheelite must have been promoted by increasing Ca contents in the fluid and also by increasing pH due to CO 2 loss. The present study demonstrates that for granitic rocks without calcareous wall rock, plagioclase breakdown must have been the key factor for scheelite mineralization. The presence of CO 2 -rich fluid indicates that both deposits formed in the same intracontinental extension setting as those in the Nanling region. Thus, the Yanshanian granites from southern Anhui Province may have a great potential for W mineralization, especially the blind ones in deep levels.