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Web Site Delays: How Tolerant are Users? ∗

Published on Jan 1, 2004in Journal of the Association for Information Systems 3.10
· DOI :10.17705/1jais.00044
Dennis F. Galletta33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Pittsburgh),
Raymond M. Henry12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 1 AuthorsPeter Polak10
Estimated H-index: 10
Web page loading speed continues to vex users, even as broadband adoption increases. Several studies have addressed delays in the context of Web sites as well as interactive corporate systems, and have recommended a wide range of i°rules of thumb.i± Some studies conclude that response times should be no greater than 2 seconds while other studies caution on delays of 12 seconds or more. One of the strongest conclusions was that complex tasks seemed to allow longer response times. This study examined delay times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 seconds using 196 undergraduate students in an experiment. Randomly assigned a constant delay time, subjects were asked to complete 9 search tasks, exploring a familiar and an unfamiliar site. Plots of the dependent variables performance, attitudes, and behavioral intentions, along those delays, suggested the use of non-linear regression, and the explained variance was in the neighborhood of 2%, 5%, and 7%, respectively. Focusing only on the familiar site, explained variance in attitudes and behavioral intentions grew to about 16%. A sensitivity analysis implies that decreases in performance and behavioral intentions begin to flatten when the delays extend to 4 seconds or longer, and attitudes flatten when the delays extend to 8 seconds or longer. Future research should include other factors such as expectations, variability, and feedback, and other outcomes such as actual purchasing behavior, to more fully understand the effects of delays in todayi¯s Web environment.
  • References (60)
  • Citations (157)
Published on Jan 1, 2004
Frances Bell8
Estimated H-index: 8
Alison Adam19
Estimated H-index: 19
This paper explores the development of information systems and computer ethics along separate trajectories over the 20 years since the first Manchester Conference, and ponders how things might have been and could be different. Along each trajectory, the challenge of aligning theory and practice has stimulated much research. We evaluate some of this research with respect to this alignment, discuss ethical theories and behavior, and explore the role of education in the development of practitioners...
Published on Sep 1, 2003in Management Information Systems Quarterly 4.37
Viswanath Venkatesh55
Estimated H-index: 55
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
Michael G. Morris19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UVA: University of Virginia)
+ 1 AuthorsFred D. Davis40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UA: University of Arkansas)
Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology accep...
Norman Au16
Estimated H-index: 16
(PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
Eric W. T. Ngai53
Estimated H-index: 53
(PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
T.C. Edwin Cheng5
Estimated H-index: 5
(PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
This paper presents a critical review of research in end-user information system satisfaction (EUISS). An extensive literature search is conducted from which over 50 EUISS related papers are identified. It is found that the past research is dominated by the expectation disconfirmation approach. To provide more insights into the psychological processing of the information system performance construct and its impact upon EUISS, we propose an integrated conceptual model based on the equity and need...
Published on Sep 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Sarv Devaraj25
Estimated H-index: 25
(ND: University of Notre Dame),
Ming Fan19
Estimated H-index: 19
(ND: University of Notre Dame),
Rajiv Kohli26
Estimated H-index: 26
(ND: University of Notre Dame)
Although electronic commerce (EC) has created new opportunities for businesses as well as consumers, questions about consumer attitudes toward Business-to-Consumer (B2C) e-commerce vis-a-vis the conventional shopping channels continue to persist. This paper reports results of a study that measured consumer satisfaction with the EC channel through constructs prescribed by three established frameworks, namely the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA), and Service Quali...
Published on Sep 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Vicki R. McKinney5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UA: University of Arkansas),
Kanghyun Yoon3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UWM: University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee),
Fatemeh Zahedi28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UWM: University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee)
Online shopping provides convenience to Web shoppers, yet its electronic format changes information-gathering methods traditionally used by customers. This change raises questions concerning customer satisfaction with the online purchasing process. Web shopping involves a number of phases, including the information phase, in which customers search for information regarding their intended purchases. The purpose of this paper is to develop theoretically justifiable constructs for measuring Web-cus...
Published on Jun 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Jonathan W. Palmer15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Web sites provide the key interface for consumer use of the Internet. This research reports on a series of three studies that developand validate Web site usability, design and performance metrics, including download delay, navigability, site content, interactivity, and responsiveness. The performance metric that was developed includes the subconstructs user satisfaction, the likelihood of return, and the frequency of use.Data was collected in 1997, 1999, and 2000 from corporate Web sites via th...
Published on Jun 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Gholamreza Torkzadeh17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas),
Gurpreet Dhillon27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Efforts to develop measures of Internet commerce success have been hampered by (1) the rapid development and use of Internet technologies and (2) the lack of conceptual bases necessary to develop success measures. In a recent study, Keeney (1999) proposed two sets of variables labeled asmeans objectives andfundamental objectives that influence Internet shopping. Means objectives, he argues, help businesses achieve what is important for their customers--fundamental objectives. Based on Keeney's w...
Published on Jun 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Detmar W. Straub48
Estimated H-index: 48
(GSU: Georgia State University),
Donna L. Hoffman34
Estimated H-index: 34
(GSU: Georgia State University)
+ 1 AuthorsCharles Steinfield42
Estimated H-index: 42
(GSU: Georgia State University)
Clear and precise metrics are essential for evaluating phenomena such as e-commerce (?Net?-enablement) and the organizational use of networks and the Internet for commercial activities. Researchers require them for theory building and testing; practitioners require them for improving organizational processes. But for IS professionals to engage in the serious creation of metrics, it is critical to recognize:(1) that the phenomenon of net-enablement is an enduring change, probably led in the futur...
Published on Jun 1, 2002in Information Systems Research 2.46
Marios Koufaris17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CUNY: City University of New York)
In this study, we consider the online consumer as both a shopper and a computer user. We test constructs from information systems (Technology Acceptance Model), marketing (Consumer Behavior), and psychology (Flow and Environmental Psychology) in an integrated theoretical framework of online consumer behavior. Specifically, we examine how emotional and cognitive responses to visiting a Web-based store for the first time can influence online consumers' intention to return and their likelihood to m...
Cited By157
Published on May 13, 2019 in WWW (The Web Conference)
Ji Hwan Yeo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SNU: Seoul National University),
Jihwan Yeo (SNU: Seoul National University)+ 0 AuthorsSoo-Mook Moon15
Estimated H-index: 15
(SNU: Seoul National University)
JavaScript execution is heavily used during the loading of web apps, taking a substantial portion of the app loading time. To accelerate JavaScript execution, snapshot-based app loading has been proposed [5, 17]. We take a snapshot of the JavaScript objects in the heap at some point during app loading (which we call snapshot point) and save them in a file in advance. Then, we start app loading by copying the objects in the snapshot to the heap directly, skipping JavaScript execution to create th...
Published on Mar 7, 2019in Information Systems Journal 3.29
Kristijan Mirkovski3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Deakin University),
James Gaskin11
Estimated H-index: 11
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
+ 1 AuthorsPaul Benjamin Lowry35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Pamplin College of Business)
Published on Feb 16, 2019
Ji Hwan Yeo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SNU: Seoul National University),
JinSeok Oh3
Estimated H-index: 3
(SNU: Seoul National University),
Soo-Mook Moon15
Estimated H-index: 15
(SNU: Seoul National University)
Reducing the loading time of a web app is important for a better user experience. The loading time includes a large amount of JavaScript execution, often composed of the execution of the global code in the script tags followed by the execution of event handlers. One approach to accelerate the app loading is saving the already-loaded execution state of JavaScript objects in a file called the snapshot in advance. Then, we start an app by copying the objects in the snapshot to the JavaScript heap d...
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Ravi Netravali8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles),
Anirudh Sivaraman15
Estimated H-index: 15
(NYU: New York University)
+ 1 AuthorsHari Balakrishnan95
Estimated H-index: 95
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Information Processing and Management 3.89
Xiao Bai7
Estimated H-index: 7
Berkant Barla Cambazoglu23
Estimated H-index: 23
Abstract Recent research in the human computer interaction and information retrieval areas has revealed that search response latency exhibits a clear impact on the user behavior in web search. Such impact is reflected both in users’ subjective perception of the usability of a search engine and in their interaction with the search engine in terms of the number of search results they engage with. However, a similar impact analysis has been missing so far in the context of sponsored search. Since t...
Published on Dec 1, 2018
Rafael Tezza1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina),
Antonio Cezar Bornia6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UFSC: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina)
+ 1 AuthorsPedro Alberto Barbetta5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UFSC: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina)
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Journal of Interactive Marketing 4.69
Savannah Wei Shi3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Santa Clara University),
Kirthi Kalyanam15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Santa Clara University)
Touch has become an inseparable element of mobile platforms. This study examines the use of different touch features and the impact of these touch gestures on consumer engagement with a mobile shopping app. We focus on three informational touch features that are common among shopping apps: touch to zoom in on a page (zoom-page), to view product details (product-view), and to be directed to outside links (open-webpage). We develop a two-level model that captures (1) consumers' decisions to stay w...
Published on Jul 21, 2018
Zhengyu Tan (Hunan University), Jieru Zhu (Hunan University)+ 1 AuthorsFusheng Li (Huawei)
Responsiveness is an important factor to be considered in human-computer interfaces. With the advent of touch screen based smartphones and the evolve of more responsive technology, the user-acceptable levels of response time have changed considerably. However, previous studies have focused more on computers than on smartphones. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between response time and user perception in the context of smartphone interactions. Different response times from ...