Influences of hydraulic fracturing on fluid flow and mineralization at the vein-type tungsten deposits in Southern China

Published on Jan 1, 2017in Geofluids1.437
· DOI :10.1155/2017/4673421
Xiangchong Liu4
Estimated H-index: 4
Huilin Xing17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UQ: University of Queensland),
Dehui Zhang9
Estimated H-index: 9
(China University of Geosciences)
Wolframite is the main ore mineral at the vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range, which is a world-class tungsten province. It is disputed how wolframite is precipitated at these deposits and no one has yet studied the links of the mechanical processes to fluid flow and mineralization. Finite element-based numerical experiments are used to investigate the influences of a hydraulic fracturing process on fluid flow and solubility of CO2 and quartz. The fluids are aqueous NaCl solutions and fluid pressure is the only variable controlling solubility of CO2 and quartz in the numerical experiments. Significant fluctuations of fluid pressure and high-velocity hydrothermal pulse are found once rock is fractured by high-pressure fluids. The fluid pressure drop induced by hydraulic fracturing could cause a 9% decrease of quartz solubility. This amount of quartz deposition may not cause a significant decrease in rock permeability. The fluid pressure decrease after hydraulic fracturing also reduces solubility of CO2 by 36% and increases pH. Because an increase in pH would cause a major decrease in solubility of tungsten, the fluid pressure drop accompanying a hydraulic fracturing process facilitates wolframite precipitation. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating wolframite at the tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range as well as other metals whose solubility is strongly dependent on pH.
  • References (84)
  • Citations (4)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
3 Citations
1 Author (W. T. Parry)
71 Citations
32 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Pilar Lecumberri-Sanchez (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 12
#2Romeu VieiraH-Index: 6
Last. M. Wӓlle (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Tungsten mineralization is typically associated with reduced granitic magmas of crustal origin. While this type of magmatism is widespread, economic tungsten deposits are highly localized, with ∼90% produced from only three countries worldwide. Therefore, the occurrence of reduced magmatism, while necessary for tungsten enrichment, seems to be insufficient to form such rare deposits. Here we explore the mechanisms that lead to wolframite precipitation and evaluate whether they may exert a decisi...
33 CitationsSource
#1Rongqing Zhang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 16
#2Jianjun Lu (NU: Nanjing University)H-Index: 16
Last. Weidong Sun (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 51
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The large low-grade Piaotang W–Sn deposit in the southern Jiangxi tungsten district of the eastern Nanling Range, South China, is related to a hidden granite pluton of Jurassic age. The magmatic-hydrothermal system displays a zonation from an inner greisen zone to quartz veins and to peripheral veinlets/stringers (Five-floor zonation model). Most mineralization is in quartz veins with wolframite > cassiterite. The hidden granite pluton in underground exposures comprises three intrusive ...
34 CitationsSource
#1Yiqu Xiong (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 2
#2Yongjun Shao (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 8
Last. Jingya Cao (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 9
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The Xitian W–Sn district is located in eastern Hunan Province of SE China and comprises the Heshuxia, Goudalan, and Longshang W–Sn deposits. Our study on the occurrence, mineral assemblage, and geochemistry of the orebodies shows that quartz-vein orebodies are dominant mode of mineralization and can be divided into three stages: stage I, quartz–molybdenite–wolframite (I); stage II, quartz–wolframite (II)–polymetallic sulfides; and stage III, quartz–pyrite–fluorite. The elements Nb, Ta, ...
24 CitationsSource
#1Qin Li (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 43
#2Huilin Xing (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 17
A simplified flow model, rather than a complex geological model, is usually used for yield prediction and history matching in petroleum industry. The gap between these two models is often bridged in practice by upscaling. Equivalent permeability is an extremely significant parameter for upscaling a coal geological model. However, how to obtain an accurate equivalent permeability is still a scientific challenge because of the unique characteristics of coal samples (e.g. complicated cleat networks...
1 CitationsSource
#1Stephen F. Cox (ANU: Australian National University)H-Index: 36
Many types of hydrothermal ore deposits form at overpressured conditions during high fluid flux through fault zones in the continental seismogenic regime. These include many orogenic gold deposits, some types of Fe oxide Cu-Au systems, and a variety of intrusion-related deposits, including some high-sulfidation epithermal systems. The internal structures of these deposits indicate formation while faults were active, in a regime involving episodic slip. Partial to complete sealing of fault zones ...
47 CitationsSource
#1Xiangchong Liu (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 4
#2Huilin Xing (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 17
Last. Dehui Zhang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The Nanling Range located in South China is a world-class tungsten province. Those tungsten deposits are spatially and temporally associated with the granitic magmatism during the Late Mesozoic (J 2 -K 2 ). It is common that alteration halos decrease with increasing depth at the vein-type tungsten deposits. However, the mechanisms forming the alteration characteristics are still enigmatic. In this contribution, we investigate the influences of variable fluid density and viscosity on the...
5 CitationsSource
#1Quanshu Li (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 2
#2Huilin Xing (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 17
Hydraulic fracturing is recognized as a key method to enhance unconventional reservoirs, but it is also quite complicated and challenging due to so many affecting factors such as the formation material parameters, fluid behaviors and geological setting/conditions. However, in unconventional reservoirs, in the near wellbore region, the rock may consist of different materials, and the stress is redistributed during drilling and fracturing process, so the preferable hydraulic fracture path is hard ...
10 CitationsSource
#1Till Sachau (University of Tübingen)H-Index: 6
#2Paul D. Bons (University of Tübingen)H-Index: 35
Last. Enrique Gomez-Rivas (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Intermittent fluid pulses in the Earth's crust can explain a variety of geological phenomena, for instance the occurrence of hydraulic breccia. Fluid transport in the crust is usually modeled as continuous darcian flow, ignoring that sufficient fluid overpressure can cause hydraulic fractures as fluid pathways with very dynamic behavior. Resulting hydraulic fracture networks are largely self-organized: opening and healing of hydraulic fractures depends on local fluid pressure, which is, in turn,...
7 CitationsSource
#1Gong XiaodongH-Index: 1
#2Yan Guangsheng (Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China)H-Index: 2
Last. Yao Xiaofeng (CGS: China Geological Survey)H-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
The Dahutang tungsten polymetallic ore field is located north of the Nanling W–Sn polymetallic metallogenic belt and south of the Middle–Lower Yangtze River Valley Cu–Mo–Au–Fe porphyry-skarn belt. It is a newly discovered ore field, and probably represents the largest tungsten mineralization district in the world. The Shimensi deposit is one of the mineral deposits in the Dahutang ore field, and is associated with Yanshanian granites intruding into a Neoproterozoic granodiorite batholith. On the...
13 CitationsSource
#1Xiangchong Liu (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 4
#2Huilin Xing (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 17
Last. Dehui Zhang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Infill textures in thick veins are one of the most important characteristics in vein-type tungsten deposits, China. One of the prerequisites for forming these textures is low wallrock permeability, but its mechanisms have not been well understood. In this contribution, we investigated the mechanisms leading to low wallrock permeability at the Dajishan tungsten deposit by conducting finite element computer experiments. The numerical experiments suggest that the hydrostatic compression ex...
10 CitationsSource
Cited By4
#1Biao Liu (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 4
#2Qian-Hong Wu (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 9
Last. Jiang-Bo Jiang (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 2
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Understanding fault-fluid evolutionary processes is crucial for understanding the genesis of vein-type deposits. Scheelite and quartz are common hydrothermal minerals in W–Sn ore field faults. In the Xitan ore field (Nanling Range, South China), scheelite textural and compositional features were studied and two types of scheelite were identified: Type I (represented by scheelite in the Xihu fault) is intergrown with quartz, has oscillatory zonation, variable zonation band width and is h...
5 CitationsSource
#1Xiangchong LiuH-Index: 4
#2Yue Ma (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Dehui Zhang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 9
view all 4 authors...
3 CitationsSource
#1Wei-Le Song (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 3
#2Jun-Ming Yao (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
Last. Chun-Kit Lai (UTAS: University of Tasmania)H-Index: 12
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The newly discovered giant Dahutang W–Cu–Mo deposit in the central part of the Jiangnan Orogen hosts an estimated resource of 1.1 million tons (Mt) of WO3, plus a proven resource of 0.65 Mt Cu and 0.08 Mt Mo. The Dahutang deposit is temporally and spatially associated with the Late Mesozoic S-type granites emplaced into the Neoproterozoic Jiuling granodiorite batholith and the Shuangqiaoshan Group. Based on petrographic observations, eight hydrothermal alteration/mineralization stages h...
5 CitationsSource
#1Xiangchong LiuH-Index: 4
#2Huilin Xing (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 17
Last. Dehui Zhang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
Alteration halos are the fingerprints left by hydrothermal flow in rocks and indicative of ore forming processes. The Nanling Range in southern China is a world-class tungsten province. However, it is poorly understood why alteration halos normal to veins in many tungsten deposits in the area decrease with increasing depth, and the time it takes to form the halos. Finite element based numerical experiments were conducted to investigate hydrothermal flow and species diffusion processes from fract...
1 CitationsSource