DNA biosensors based on gold nanoparticles-modified graphene oxide for the detection of breast cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis
Abstract Two different DNA (ERBB2c and CD24c) modified gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide loaded on glassy carbon electrodes were prepared for early detection of breast cancer markers by electrochemical detection of HER2. Comparative study of ERBB2c and CD24c for the detection was carried out. A “sandwich-type” detection strategy was employed in this electrochemical DNA biosensor and its response was measured by amperometric detection. The electrochemical signal enhancement achieved via gold nanoparticles and grapheme oxide system allowed for sensitive detection of the breast cancer biomarker ERBB2 and the control marker CD24. The modified graphene oxide was characterised using Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The various steps involved in the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with graphene oxide, gold nanoparticles and DNA probes, target and reporter probe were electrochemically characterised using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using amperometric detection of a horse radish peroxidase label, detection limits of 0.16 nM and 0.23nM were obtained with sensitivity 378 nA/nM and 219 nA/nM for ERBB2 andCD24 respectively.