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Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

Published on Dec 1, 2017in Parasites & Vectors3.031
· DOI :10.1186/s13071-017-2232-3
Kai Dang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Universiti Sains Malaysia),
Stephen L. Doggett18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Westmead Hospital)
+ 1 AuthorsChow-Yang Lee19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Universiti Sains Malaysia)
Sources
Abstract
The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.
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  • References (242)
  • Citations (29)
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References242
Newest
#1Rashi Minocha (Westmead Hospital)H-Index: 3
#2Changlu Wang (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 1
Last. Stephen L. Doggett (Westmead Hospital)H-Index: 18
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Bed bugs (Cimex spp.) have undergone a global resurgence over the last 15–20 years. They readily bite humans, producing a range of cutaneous reactions. This article documents systemic reactions in two patients following repeated bites from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Both patients had previously fed bed bugs on themselves without any serious complication, however upon feeding a new batch of the insects subsequently developed systemic urticarial reactions. Patient 1 fed 40–50 bed bugs ...
8 CitationsSource
#1David G. LillyH-Index: 6
#2Cameron E. WebbH-Index: 18
Last. Stephen L. DoggettH-Index: 18
view all 3 authors...
Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticid...
10 CitationsSource
#1Brittany E. Campbell (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 2
#2Philip G. Koehler (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 20
Last. R. W. Baldwin (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
Summary This is the first report of the tropical bed bug in Florida in over 6 decades. The tropical bed bug had previously been documented in Florida in the 1930s and 1940s.
10 CitationsSource
#1David G. LillyH-Index: 6
#2Kai DangH-Index: 2
Last. Stephen L. DoggettH-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
Resistance to insecticides, especially the pyrethroids, in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., has been well-documented. However, the presence and relative contribution of metabolic detoxifying microsomal oxidases and hydrolytic esterases to the observed resistance has yet to be fully elucidated. This is due, in part, to the absence of a simple bioassay procedure that appropriately isolates esterases from potentially competing oxidases. Recently, an analogue of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was...
8 CitationsSource
#1Alvaro Romero (NMSU: New Mexico State University)H-Index: 13
#2Troy D. Anderson (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 11
The rapid increase of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of novel control tactics. Products combining pyrethroids and neonicotinoids have become very popular for bed bug control in the United States, but there are concerns about evolution of resistance to these compounds. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of topical applications of four neonicotinoids to a susceptible population and three pyrethroid-resistant populations. Activity of esterases,...
40 CitationsSource
#1Abd Hafis Abd Rahim (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 2
#2Zulaikha Zahran (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 2
Last. Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Objective To observe the manifestation of skin reactions and determine the time for skin reactions from bites of tropical bed bug (Cimex hemipterus) to disappear on different body parts.
2 CitationsSource
#1David G. Lilly (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 6
#2Sharissa L. Latham (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 7
Last. Stephen L. Doggett (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
Thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest’s resurgence. Overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no ...
32 CitationsSource
#1Joshua B. Benoit (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 32
#2Zach N. Adelman (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 25
Last. Stephen Richards (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)H-Index: 49
view all 81 authors...
The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory...
79 CitationsSource
#1Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 20
#2Darryl Reeves (Cornell University)H-Index: 5
Last. Christopher E. MasonH-Index: 49
view all 27 authors...
The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding...
39 CitationsSource
#1Zahran Zulaikha (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 1
#2Ab Majid Abdul Hafiz (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 1
Last. A. Abu Hassan (Universiti Sains Malaysia)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Objective To survey current bed bugs infestation status in 11 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods Targeted sampling in the urban areas was performed and the sites in each state were selected based on foreign workers' abundance and reports from pest control professionals in Malaysia. The collected bed bugs were classified into different strains obtained at the respective sites. Results Out of all 185 surveyed sites, approximately 38 of them have been actively inf...
8 CitationsSource
Cited By29
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#1Mariano Cáceres (La Salle University)H-Index: 1
Last. Alejandro LuciaH-Index: 57
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Synthetic insecticides have been used for a long time as one of the most effective tools for insect pest control. However, the re-emergence of insect pests and their fast development of resistance, as has occurred for pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs Cimex lectularius L., make it necessary to develop new and safe strategies for effective pest control. This has fostered the research on new eco-sustainable formulations based on essential oils, which allows reducing the impact associated with the inte...
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#1Juan Carlos Cambronero-Heinrichs (UCR: University of Costa Rica)H-Index: 2
#2Laura Sofía Sánchez-Portilla (UCR: University of Costa Rica)
Last. Adriana Troyo (UCR: University of Costa Rica)H-Index: 15
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Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus are the most common species of bedbugs that infest homes. Although case reports decreased substantially by the end of the 20th century, bed bugs, and especially C. lectularius, are currently suffering a resurgence mostly attributed to insecticide resistance, inadequate pest control, and increased travel. Here, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first molecular confirmation of C. lectularius in Central America. Specimens were obtained from an apart...
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#1Cari D Lewis (TU: University of Tulsa)
#2Brenna A. Levine (TU: University of Tulsa)H-Index: 2
Last. Warren Booth (TU: University of Tulsa)H-Index: 17
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In recent years, bed bugs have experienced a remarkable resurgence on a near global scale. While reports have primarily focused on the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.), which has resurged largely in temperate regions, in tropical regions the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has reemerged as well. Recent reports of C. hemipterus introductions to subtropical and temperate regions, outside of the species natural distribution, suggest the potential for establishm...
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Four putative knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations have been documented in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene of Cimex hemipterus from several countries. However, no information regarding kdr mutations in any Chinese tropical bed bug population is available to date. In this study, a double-mutationM918I + L1014Fkdr allele was identified in six C. hemipterus populations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. The frequency of this allele was 100% in all the six examined popula...
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#2Ayhan GökçeH-Index: 1
Last. Allah BakhshH-Index: 13
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Abstract Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), is the important pest of potato all over the world. This insect pest is resistant to more than 50 active compounds belonging to various chemical groups. Potential of RNA interference (RNAi) was explored to knock down transcript levels of imidacloprid resistant genes in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) under laboratory conditions. Three important genes belonging to cuticular protein (CP), cytochrome P450 monox...
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#1Nicholas R Larson (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)
#2Aijun Zhang (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 23
Last. Mark F. Feldlaufer (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 24
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: Common bed bug Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) infestations are on the rise and due to the development of pesticide resistance they are becoming more difficult to control, affordably. We evaluated a naturally occurring compound methyl benzoate (MB) and related analogs, previously reported to have insecticidal activity on several agricultural pests, for its fumigant action on the common bed bug, C. lectularius L. A discriminating concentration was used to determine the effectivene...
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#1Nan Chen (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 2
#2Xiao-Jin Pei (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 1
Last. Tong-Xian Liu (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 35
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BACKGROUND: Cuticle penetration plays an important role as a mechanism of insecticide resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In Blattella germanica, the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G19, is overexpressed in a pyrethroid-resistant strain. Here, we investigated whether CYP4G19 is involved in the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and further contributes to cuticular penetration resistance in B. germanica. RESULTS: Compared with the susceptible strain, pyrethroid-resis...
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#1Jeffrey G Holleman (TU: University of Tulsa)
#2Grant A Robison (TU: University of Tulsa)H-Index: 3
Last. Warren Booth (TU: University of Tulsa)H-Index: 17
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: Despite awareness of the mutations conferring insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), within the United States few studies address the distribution and frequency of these. Within the United States, studies have focused on collections made along the East Coast and Midwest, documenting the occurrence of two mutations (V419L and L925I) within the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit gene shown to be associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyreth...
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#1Germana T Baraka (UDSM: University of Dar es Salaam)
#2Bruno A. Nyundo (UDSM: University of Dar es Salaam)H-Index: 1
Last. Eliningaya J. Kweka (Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences)H-Index: 21
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Cimex hemipterus resistance to residual insecticides is a growing public health concern worldwide. Herein, we report the susceptibility status of C. hemipterus against pyrethroid (permethrin) and organophosphate (dichlorvos) insecticides in Dar es Salaam. The knockdown efficacy of dichlorvos (99%) was greater than that of permethrin (43%), and mortality at the end of 24 h was also greater for dichlorvos than for permethrin. Mortality in recommended concentration of permethrin was lower than manu...
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