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Effect of retention in elementary grades on dropping out of school early

Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of School Psychology3.076
· DOI :10.1016/j.jsp.2017.06.003
Jan N. Hughes41
Estimated H-index: 41
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Qian Cao3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 2 AuthorsCarissa Analise Cerda3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on dropping out of school by age 16. Participants were 538 (54% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into a longitudinal study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.58). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 171 retained students and the 367 continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in grade 1. Fifty-one students dropped out of school by age 16 and 487 persisted. Retention (vs. promotion) led to an increased early dropout rate (odds ratio = 1.68), even after controlling for 65 covariates associated with school achievement, retention, or both. Implications of findings for dropout prevention and grade retention policies are discussed.
  • References (72)
  • Citations (3)
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References72
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#1Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 69
ABSTRACTShould low-achieving students be promoted to the next grade or be retained (held back) in the prior grade? This special section presents a discussion of the application of marginal structural models to the challenging problem of estimating the effect of promotion versus retention in grade on math scores in elementary school. Vandecandelaere, De Fraine, Van Damme, and Vansteelandt provide a didactic presentation of the marginal structural modeling approach, noting retention is a time-vary...
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#1Peter M. Steiner (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 15
#2Soojin Park (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 1
Last. Yongnam Kim (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 5
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ABSTRACTThis commentary discusses causal estimands of same-age and same-grade comparisons for assessing grade-retention effects on student ability and performance. Using potential outcomes notation, we show that same-age and same-grade comparisons refer to different retention–promotion contrasts and therefore assess different causal questions. We also comment on deleting versus censoring records of students who dropped out of the study or do not belong to the treatment regimes under investigatio...
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#1Heining Cham (Fordham University)H-Index: 15
#2Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 69
Propensity score analysis is a method that equates treatment and control groups on a comprehensive set of measured confounders in observational (nonrandomized) studies. A successful propensity score analysis reduces bias in the estimate of the average treatment effect in a nonrandomized study, making the estimate more comparable with that obtained from a randomized experiment. This article reviews and discusses an important practical issue in propensity analysis, in which the baseline covariates...
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This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervent...
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Context High school completion (HSC) is an established predictor of long-term morbidity and mortality. U.S. rates of HSC are substantially lower among students from low-income families and most racial/ethnic minority populations than students from high-income families and the non-Hispanic white population. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of programs to increase HSC and the potential of these programs to improve lifelong health among at-risk students. Evidence acquisition A sear...
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#1Heining Cham (Fordham University)H-Index: 15
#2Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 41
Last. Myung Hee Im (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 8
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Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, n retained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, n promoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists o...
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#1Megan Andrew (ND: University of Notre Dame)H-Index: 4
Triggering events and the scarring, or status-dependence, process they induce are an important cornerstone of social stratification theory that is rarely studied in the context of the educational career. However, the decades-old high-stakes environment that ties many educational outcomes to a test score or other singular achievement underscores the potential importance of scarring in the contemporary educational career. In this paper, I study scarring in the educational career in the case of pri...
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#1Stephanie Al Otaiba (SMU: Southern Methodist University)H-Index: 30
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This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models—typical RTI and dynamic RTI—and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socioeconomically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students’ initial screening results. I...
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#1Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 69
#2Heining Cham (Fordham University)H-Index: 15
Last. Matthias Weiler (FU: Free University of Berlin)H-Index: 3
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A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covari...
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Cited By3
Newest
Racial/ethnic disparities in grade retention related to structural inequality are investigated using a quantitative theoretical model from the health literature. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort are linked with segregation indices for dissimilarity and poverty interaction derived from the US Census 2000 data estimate the impact of individual and structural level variables on grade retention. Shared frailty models demonstrate that there are racial/ethnic differ...
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#1Sophia H. J. Hwang (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 1
#2Elise Cappella (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 17
AbstractGrade retention, the practice of requiring a student to remain in the same grade the following year, disproportionately affects students with sociodemographic risk and facing academic challenges. Each year, the United States spends $20 billion on retention and two million children are retained. Extant studies examining early elementary grade retention generally focus on short-term effects and academic outcomes; little is known about long-term effects on academic and psychosocial outcomes...
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#1Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 41
#2Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 69
Last. Shelby S. Bauer (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 1
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This 14-year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in Grades 1–5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 256 retained students and the 478 students continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in Grade 1. At the end of 14 yea...
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