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Effect of retention in elementary grades on dropping out of school early

Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of School Psychology3.08
· DOI :10.1016/j.jsp.2017.06.003
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Qian Cao3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 2 AuthorsCarissa Cerda3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
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Abstract
Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on dropping out of school by age 16. Participants were 538 (54% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into a longitudinal study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.58). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 171 retained students and the 367 continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in grade 1. Fifty-one students dropped out of school by age 16 and 487 persisted. Retention (vs. promotion) led to an increased early dropout rate (odds ratio = 1.68), even after controlling for 65 covariates associated with school achievement, retention, or both. Implications of findings for dropout prevention and grade retention policies are discussed.
  • References (72)
  • Citations (3)
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References72
Newest
Published on Dec 14, 2016in Multivariate Behavioral Research2.14
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
ABSTRACTShould low-achieving students be promoted to the next grade or be retained (held back) in the prior grade? This special section presents a discussion of the application of marginal structural models to the challenging problem of estimating the effect of promotion versus retention in grade on math scores in elementary school. Vandecandelaere, De Fraine, Van Damme, and Vansteelandt provide a didactic presentation of the marginal structural modeling approach, noting retention is a time-vary...
Published on Aug 19, 2016in Multivariate Behavioral Research2.14
Peter M. Steiner15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison),
Soojin Park1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Yongnam Kim4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
ABSTRACTThis commentary discusses causal estimands of same-age and same-grade comparisons for assessing grade-retention effects on student ability and performance. Using potential outcomes notation, we show that same-age and same-grade comparisons refer to different retention–promotion contrasts and therefore assess different causal questions. We also comment on deleting versus censoring records of students who dropped out of the study or do not belong to the treatment regimes under investigatio...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Psychological Methods8.19
Heining Cham13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Fordham University),
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Propensity score analysis is a method that equates treatment and control groups on a comprehensive set of measured confounders in observational (nonrandomized) studies. A successful propensity score analysis reduces bias in the estimate of the average treatment effect in a nonrandomized study, making the estimate more comparable with that obtained from a randomized experiment. This article reviews and discusses an important practical issue in propensity analysis, in which the baseline covariates...
Published on May 1, 2015in American Journal of Preventive Medicine4.43
Robert A. Hahn32
Estimated H-index: 32
,
John A. Knopf5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 10 AuthorsMindy Thompson Fullilove35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Columbia University)
Context High school completion (HSC) is an established predictor of long-term morbidity and mortality. U.S. rates of HSC are substantially lower among students from low-income families and most racial/ethnic minority populations than students from high-income families and the non-Hispanic white population. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of programs to increase HSC and the potential of these programs to improve lifelong health among at-risk students. Evidence acquisition A sear...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Journal of School Psychology3.08
Heining Cham13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Fordham University),
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 1 AuthorsMyung Hee Im7
Estimated H-index: 7
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Abstract This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, n retained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, n promoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists o...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Social Forces2.29
Megan Andrew4
Estimated H-index: 4
(ND: University of Notre Dame)
Triggering events and the scarring, or status-dependence, process they induce are an important cornerstone of social stratification theory that is rarely studied in the context of the educational career. However, the decades-old high-stakes environment that ties many educational outcomes to a test score or other singular achievement underscores the potential importance of scarring in the contemporary educational career. In this paper, I study scarring in the educational career in the case of pri...
Published on Oct 1, 2014in Exceptional Children2.85
Stephanie Al Otaiba28
Estimated H-index: 28
(SMU: Southern Methodist University),
Carol McDonald Connor33
Estimated H-index: 33
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 4 AuthorsRichard K. Wagner50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University)
This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models—typical RTI and dynamic RTI—and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socioeconomically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students’ initial screening results. I...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology4.36
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
,
Heining Cham13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Fordham University)
+ 3 AuthorsMatthias Weiler3
Estimated H-index: 3
(FU: Free University of Berlin)
A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covari...
Published on Jun 1, 2013in Journal of School Psychology3.08
Myung Hee Im7
Estimated H-index: 7
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 2 AuthorsCarissa Cerda3
Estimated H-index: 3
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Abstract The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample ( N = 784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the element...
Cited By3
Newest
Published on May 16, 2019in Population Research and Policy Review1.08
Racial/ethnic disparities in grade retention related to structural inequality are investigated using a quantitative theoretical model from the health literature. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort are linked with segregation indices for dissimilarity and poverty interaction derived from the US Census 2000 data estimate the impact of individual and structural level variables on grade retention. Shared frailty models demonstrate that there are racial/ethnic differ...
Sophia H. J. Hwang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NYU: New York University),
Elise Cappella17
Estimated H-index: 17
(NYU: New York University)
AbstractGrade retention, the practice of requiring a student to remain in the same grade the following year, disproportionately affects students with sociodemographic risk and facing academic challenges. Each year, the United States spends $20 billion on retention and two million children are retained. Extant studies examining early elementary grade retention generally focus on short-term effects and academic outcomes; little is known about long-term effects on academic and psychosocial outcomes...
Published on Nov 9, 2017in Journal of Educational Psychology5.18
Jan N. Hughes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Stephen G. West65
Estimated H-index: 65
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 1 AuthorsShelby S. Bauer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
This 14-year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in Grades 1–5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting successfully equated the 256 retained students and the 478 students continuously promoted students on 65 covariates assessed in Grade 1. At the end of 14 yea...
View next paperGrade retention and school performance: An extended investigation