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La tormentosa relación entre las grasas y el desarrollo de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2: actualizado. Parte 2

Published on Jul 1, 2017in Revista Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo
· DOI :10.1016/j.raem.2017.06.002
José Esteban Costa Gil , Eduardo Spinedi (Facultad de Ciencias Médicas)
Resumen En esta parte de la revision se describe la relacion funcional entre el metabolismo de los lipidos y los hidratos de carbono y su interdependencia, desde el ciclo glucosa-acido grasos y la hipotesis portal de la insulinorresistencia a los nuevos conocimientos sobre los adipocitos marrones y beiges, con enfasis en el normal funcionamiento de un patron endocrino cuya disfuncion es clave en la fisiopatologia de la DMT2 y la obesidad. Se discute la ectopia o el asiento de grasa en el tejido magro por incapacidad del tejido adiposo para seguir acopiando lipidos y la actividad endocrina del adipocito , con la produccion de moleculas (adipoquinas) que influyen sobre los mecanismos inductores de insulinorresistencia (leptina, adiponectina, TNF-α, resistina, etc.) y disfuncion de la celula beta. Se describen la disminucion de la capacidad oxidativa en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial y el renacer del concepto de lipogenesis de novo , ambas favoreciendo el acopie de lipido intracelular. En tejidos magros existen pequenas reservas intracelulares de lipidos que mantienen la regulacion de funciones esenciales, aunque si aparece una sobrecarga lipidica el fenomeno conduciria a una disfuncion (lipotoxicidad) y a la muerte celular (lipoapoptosis). La tormentosa relacion entre los lipidos y el islote de Langerhans va mas alla del esfuerzo funcional que impone la insulinorresistencia periferica sobre la celula β, por efectos directos de los lipidos o de sus derivados sobre la funcion del islote pancreatico. Sin deficit de insulina no se desarrolla diabetes.
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Published on Jul 2, 2016in Nutrients 4.20
María Guillermina Zubiría5
Estimated H-index: 5
Ana Alzamendi8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 4 AuthorsAndrés Giovambattista10
Estimated H-index: 10
Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is the result of two processes: hyperplasia and hypertrophy; and both, directly or indirectly, depend on the adipogenic potential of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs). Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a potent stimulatory effect on terminal adipogenesis; while their effects on early stages of adipogenesis are largely unknown. In the present work, we study, in a model of high GC levels, the adipogenic potential of APCs from retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) and its relationship wit...
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Katrin J. Svensson21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Harvard University),
Jonathan Z. Long35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Harvard University)
+ 11 AuthorsRajesh R. Rao8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Harvard University)
Summary Activation of brown and beige fat can reduce obesity and improve glucose homeostasis through nonshivering thermogenesis. Whether brown or beige fat also secretes paracrine or endocrine factors to promote and amplify adaptive thermogenesis is not fully explored. Here we identify Slit2, a 180 kDa member of the Slit extracellular protein family, as a PRDM16-regulated secreted factor from beige fat cells. In isolated cells and in mice, full-length Slit2 is cleaved to generate several smaller...
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Published on Jan 1, 2016in Molecular Endocrinology 3.68
Jonathan N. Flak21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UM: University of Michigan),
Martin G. Myers7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UM: University of Michigan)
Leptin is an adipocytokine that circulates in proportion to body fat to signal the repletion of long-term energy stores. Leptin acts via its receptor, LepRb, on specialized neuronal populations in the brain (mainly in the hypothalamus and brainstem) to alter motivation and satiety, as well as to permit energy expenditure and appropriate glucose homeostasis. Decreased leptin, as with prolonged caloric restriction, promotes a powerful orexigenic signal, decreases energy use via a number of neuroen...
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Published on Mar 27, 2015in Reproduction 3.09
Poli Mara Spritzer29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul),
Sheila Bünecker Lecke6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
+ 1 AuthorsDebora Martinho Morsch10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
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Published on Sep 1, 2014in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 5.98
Bernard Thorens72
Estimated H-index: 72
(UNIL: University of Lausanne)
Intracellular glucose signalling pathways control the secretion of glucagon and insulin by pancreatic islet α- and β-cells, respectively. However, glucose also indirectly controls the secretion of these hormones through regulation of the autonomic nervous system that richly innervates this endocrine organ. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems also impact endocrine pancreas postnatal development and plasticity in adult animals. Defects in these autonomic regulations impair β-cell ...
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Published on Nov 1, 2013in FEBS Journal 4.53
María Guillermina Zubiría5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council),
Juan Pablo Fariña2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNLP: National University of La Plata)
+ 3 AuthorsAndrés Giovambattista11
Estimated H-index: 11
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)
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Published on Jun 1, 2013in Diabetes 7.27
Bruce M. Spiegelman165
Estimated H-index: 165
(Harvard University)
The Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement Award is the American Diabetes Association's highest scientific award and honors an individual who has made significant, long-term contributions to the understanding of diabetes, its treatment, and/or prevention.The award is named after Nobel Prize winner Sir Frederick Banting, who codiscovered insulin treatment for diabetes. Bruce M. Spiegelman, PhD, of Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, received the American Diabe...
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Published on Jan 1, 2012in Nature 41.58
Pontus Boström23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Harvard University),
Jun Wu21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 15 AuthorsJonathan Z. Long35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Harvard University)
In mice, expression of PGC1-α in muscles is shown to stimulate expression of FNDC5, which is cleaved and secreted in the circulation as the newly identified hormone irisin; on exercise, this hormone stimulates browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue.
1,615 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 4, 2011in Journal of Clinical Investigation 13.25
Patrick Seale42
Estimated H-index: 42
Heather M. Conroe4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 6 AuthorsBruce M. Spiegelman165
Estimated H-index: 165
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Published on Jul 1, 2010in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 4.28
Chih‐Hao Wang3
Estimated H-index: 3
(NYMU: National Yang-Ming University),
Ching‐Chu Wang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NYMU: National Yang-Ming University),
Yau-Huei Wei61
Estimated H-index: 61
(Mackay Medical College)
Abundant evidence has been accumulated to suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes. Research findings from this and other laboratories have supported the notion that impaired mitochondrial function is a cause of insulin insensitivity in myocytes and adipocytes as a result of insufficient supply of energy or defects in the insulin signaling pathway. We demonstrated that inhibition of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation by respiratory inhibitors or knockdown ...
71 Citations Source Cite
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