A revision of Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension

Published on Aug 7, 2017
· DOI :10.1108/CCSM-11-2016-0197
Michael Minkov20
Estimated H-index: 20
Pinaki Dutt2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 5 AuthorsBen Mudd2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Nottingham)
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and authoritative measure of individualism vs collectivism (IDV-COLL) as a dimension of national culture. Design/methodology/approach Rather than focus solely on Hofstede’s classic work, the authors review the main nation-level studies of IDV-COLL and related constructs to identify the salient cultural differences between rich societies and developing nations. The authors conceptualize and operationalize IDV-COLL on the basis of those differences and propose a new national IDV-COLL index, using new data from large probabilistic samples: 52,974 respondents from 56 countries, adequately representing the national cultures of all inhabited continents. Findings The proposed index is a new, valid measure of IDV-COLL as it is strongly correlated with previous measures of closely associated constructs. As a predictor of important cultural differences that can be expected to be associated with IDV-COLL, it performs better (yields higher correlations) than any known measure of IDV-COLL or a related construct. Research limitations/implications An important facet of IDV-COLL – in-group favoritism vs out-group neglect or exclusionism – does not transpire convincingly from the authors’ operationalization of IDV-COLL. The study relies on self-construals. Respondents are unlikely to construe their selves in terms of such concepts. Practical implications The new IDV-COLL measure can be used as a reliable, up-to-date national index in studies that compare the cultures of rich and developing nations. The new IDV-COLL scale, consisting of only seven items, can be easily used in future studies. Originality/value This is the first IDV-COLL measure based on the communalities of previous studies in this domain and derived from large probabilistic samples that approach national representativeness. The superior predictive properties of the authors’ new measure with respect to extraneous variables are another important strength and contribution.
  • References (33)
  • Citations (19)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
2,927 Citations
1 Author (Michael Minkov)
20 Citations
157 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Vivian L. Vignoles (University of Sussex)H-Index: 23
#2Ellinor Owe (University of Sussex)H-Index: 6
Last. Michael Harris Bond (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 65
view all 72 authors...
Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and meas...
73 CitationsSource
#1Witteloostuijn van Arjen (University of Antwerp)H-Index: 35
Purpose – Current publication practices in the scholarly (International) Business and Management community are overwhelmingly anti-Popperian, which fundamentally frustrates the production of scientific progress. This is the result of at least five related biases: the verification, novelty, normal science, evidence, and market biases. As a result, no one is really interested in replicating anything. In this essay, the author extensively argues what he believes is wrong, why that is so, and what w...
8 CitationsSource
This study finds that road death tolls, occupational fatality rates, and airline safety are strongly correlated across 92 countries, yielding a common factor: national societal accident proneness. It is independently predicted by national differences in transparency versus corruption and differences in education. This finding has important practical implications: Substantial reduction of a nation's societal accident proneness requires strong gains in transparency and education. Language: en
2 CitationsSource
#1Michael Minkov (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 20
#2Geert Hofstede (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 65
The World Values Survey allows a comparison of the relative contribution of nations versus global religions on the cultural values of nations and in-country religious groups. We analyzed the answers to 16 questions from 2005–2008 about personal values and values for children at the level of 121 in-country religious groups from 56 nations. We found that the national influence is much stronger than the influence of global religions. This results in nationally homogeneous and statistically distingu...
15 CitationsSource
#1Michael Minkov (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 20
#2Geert Hofstede (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 65
The use of nations as units of analysis in cross-cultural studies is a controversial approach as nations may not be culturally homogeneous. However, a recent study by Minkov and Hofstede found that African, Asian, Latin American, and Anglo in-country regions tended to form homogeneous and distinct national clusters on World Values Survey (WVS) items. We extend this research to European regions, as well as randomly formed nationally homogeneous groups of European respondents, using value measures...
32 CitationsSource
#1Christian WelzelH-Index: 28
Introduction Part I. Understanding Emancipative Values: 1. A theory of emancipation 2. Mapping differences 3. Multi-level drivers 4. Tracing change Part II. Emancipative Values as a Civic Force: 5. Intrinsic wellbeing 6. Benign individualism 7. Collective action Part III. Democratizing Impulses of Emancipative Values: 8. Entitling people 9. The rights revolution 10. The paradox of democracy Part IV. Emancipative Values in Human Civilization: 11. The redirection of civilization 12. The sustainabi...
172 Citations
#1Michael Minkov (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 20
#2Vesselin Ivanov Blagoev (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 5
Last. Geert Hofstede (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 65
view all 3 authors...
Cultural phenomena are usually viewed as possessing some temporal stability. Measured properly, the dimensions that they yield have convincing predictive properties and create clear geographic or economic clusters of countries. Using these criteria, we assess the nature of 10 World Values Survey items that address societal norms. We find that they form two factors at the ecological level. Only one of these (personal-sexual) is unambiguously a cultural dimension, associated with previous measures...
46 CitationsSource
#1Vas Taras (UNCG: University of North Carolina at Greensboro)H-Index: 14
#2Piers Steel (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 27
Last. Bradley L. Kirkman (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 39
view all 3 authors...
This meta-analysis offers an updated set of national cultural scores along the dimensions of Hofstede's cultural framework. The meta-analytic national cultural indices have two advantages. First, they are based on a larger and more representative sample than that used in Hofstede's or any other cross-cultural comparison study. The data come from 451 empirical studies representing over 2000 samples comprising over half a million individuals from 49 countries and regions. Second, cultural change i...
183 CitationsSource
#1Michael Minkov (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 20
#2Geert Hofstede (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 65
Although many cross-cultural studies have used nations as the units of analysis, the concept of national culture has been challenged on various grounds. One objection is that there may be significant cultural diversity within some countries and similarities across national borders, compromising the concept of national culture. This objection has little empirical support. We used latest World Values Survey data and found that 299 in-country regions from 28 countries in East and Southeast Asia, su...
122 CitationsSource
#1Michael Minkov (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 20
#2Vesselin Ivanov Blagoev (International University, Cambodia)H-Index: 5
There is an ongoing controversy about what Project GLOBE's cultural dimensions measure. GLOBE's work has been criticized by various authors, most recently by McCrae and associates, who view some of GLOBE's scales as unfounded national stereotypes. Further, GLOBE has disregarded the difference between personal values and prescribed norms for others. This paper validates some of GLOBE's dimensions empirically. However, at least two -- humane orientation and performance orientation -- do not genera...
32 CitationsSource
Cited By19
#1Anneli Kaasa (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 9
#2Michael Minkov (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 1
Globalization is highlighting existing cultural differences between nations, but what is the future of these differences? We attempt to answer this question by analyzing the evolution of cultural c...
The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has dramatically changed our habits and routines. Uncertainty, insecurity, instability for the present and future, and reduced autonomy and self-directedness, are common feelings at the time of COVID-19. These aspects are very important during emerging adulthood. In spite of the fact that medical reports suggest that youth are less prone to experience COVID-19 infections, emerging adults might be at higher risk for their psychological adjus...
2 CitationsSource
#2Oriana Mosca (University of Cagliari)
Last. Kuba Krys (Kyoto University)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Happiness research tradition is focused on an independent form of happiness (Satisfaction with life, SWL), which in part neglects the social context and group well-being. We considered interdepende...
The goal of the current study was to investigate the universality of the five-factor model of mindfulness and the measurement equivalence of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The study used FFMQ data from published and unpublished research conducted in 16 countries (total N = 8541). Using CFA, different models, proposed in the literature, were fitted. To test the cross-cultural equivalence of the best fitting model, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used. Further, the...
#1Jeremy Rappleye (Kyoto University)H-Index: 10
#2Hikaru Komatsu (Kyoto University)H-Index: 27
Last. Hazel Rose Markus (Stanford University)H-Index: 72
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACTFacing increasing critique that PISA focuses too narrowly on cognitive achievement and human/knowledge capital, the OECD has recently shifted some of its focus to student happiness. The 201...
2 CitationsSource
The Sexual Double Standard (SDS) is an instrument used to judge sexual behavior, in which men are usually granted greater sexual freedom, while the same sexual behavior is condemned in women. Culture can be a relevant variable for the SDS. Therefore, we have examined the measurement invariance of the Sexual Double Standard Scale (SDSS) across the Spanish and Colombian populations, comparing this phenomenon by country and gender. The scale comprises two factors: sexual freedom and sexual shyness....
#1Logan L. Watts (The Graduate Center, CUNY)H-Index: 1
#2Logan M. Steele (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 8
Last. Deanne N. Den Hartog (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 45
view all 3 authors...
Transformational leadership is commonly assumed to facilitate employee innovation in all cultures. Drawing upon field studies from 17 countries, this meta-analysis revealed that supervisor transformational leadership is positively related to individual- and team-level innovation regardless of national boundaries. However, the relationship trended somewhat more strongly in countries with higher levels of uncertainty avoidance. These findings suggest that employee innovation in most countries can ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Michael Minkov (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 1
#2Christian WelzelH-Index: 28
Last. Michael SchachnerH-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Numerous studies have reported a positive individual-level association between happiness and two psychologically distinct states of mind: religious faith and subjective freedom (a feeling of life control). Although the strength of these relationships varies across countries, no general pattern driving this variation has been shown so far. After surveying 40,534 randomly selected respondents from 43 nations, we find that in countries where happiness is more closely related to religious faith, it ...