Icons / Logo / Facebook Created with Sketch. Icons / Logo / Google Created with Sketch. Icons / Logo / ORCID Created with Sketch. Branding/Logomark minus Citation Combined Shape Icon/Bookmark-empty Icon/Copy Icon/Collection Icon/Close Copy 7 no author result Created with Sketch. Icon/Back Created with Sketch. Match!

A revision of Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension: A new national index from a 56-country study

Published on Aug 7, 2017
· DOI :10.1108/CCSM-11-2016-0197
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Pinaki Dutt2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 5 AuthorsBen Mudd2
Estimated H-index: 2
Cite
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and authoritative measure of individualism vs collectivism (IDV-COLL) as a dimension of national culture. Design/methodology/approach Rather than focus solely on Hofstede’s classic work, the authors review the main nation-level studies of IDV-COLL and related constructs to identify the salient cultural differences between rich societies and developing nations. The authors conceptualize and operationalize IDV-COLL on the basis of those differences and propose a new national IDV-COLL index, using new data from large probabilistic samples: 52,974 respondents from 56 countries, adequately representing the national cultures of all inhabited continents. Findings The proposed index is a new, valid measure of IDV-COLL as it is strongly correlated with previous measures of closely associated constructs. As a predictor of important cultural differences that can be expected to be associated with IDV-COLL, it performs better (yields higher correlations) than any known measure of IDV-COLL or a related construct. Research limitations/implications An important facet of IDV-COLL – in-group favoritism vs out-group neglect or exclusionism – does not transpire convincingly from the authors’ operationalization of IDV-COLL. The study relies on self-construals. Respondents are unlikely to construe their selves in terms of such concepts. Practical implications The new IDV-COLL measure can be used as a reliable, up-to-date national index in studies that compare the cultures of rich and developing nations. The new IDV-COLL scale, consisting of only seven items, can be easily used in future studies. Originality/value This is the first IDV-COLL measure based on the communalities of previous studies in this domain and derived from large probabilistic samples that approach national representativeness. The superior predictive properties of the authors’ new measure with respect to extraneous variables are another important strength and contribution.
  • References (33)
  • Citations (13)
Cite
References33
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2016
Witteloostuijn van Arjen33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Antwerp)
Purpose – Current publication practices in the scholarly (International) Business and Management community are overwhelmingly anti-Popperian, which fundamentally frustrates the production of scientific progress. This is the result of at least five related biases: the verification, novelty, normal science, evidence, and market biases. As a result, no one is really interested in replicating anything. In this essay, the author extensively argues what he believes is wrong, why that is so, and what w...
Published on Apr 1, 2016in Cross-Cultural Research 1.32
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
This study finds that road death tolls, occupational fatality rates, and airline safety are strongly correlated across 92 countries, yielding a common factor: national societal accident proneness. It is independently predicted by national differences in transparency versus corruption and differences in education. This finding has important practical implications: Substantial reduction of a nation's societal accident proneness requires strong gains in transparency and education. Language: en
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 3.50
Vivian L. Vignoles23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Sussex),
Ellinor Owe6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Sussex)
+ 69 AuthorsMaria Paz Cadena4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UC: Pontifical Catholic University of Chile)
Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and meas...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Management International Review 2.69
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(International University, Cambodia),
Geert Hofstede62
Estimated H-index: 62
(UM: Maastricht University)
The World Values Survey allows a comparison of the relative contribution of nations versus global religions on the cultural values of nations and in-country religious groups. We analyzed the answers to 16 questions from 2005–2008 about personal values and values for children at the level of 121 in-country religious groups from 56 nations. We found that the national influence is much stronger than the influence of global religions. This results in nationally homogeneous and statistically distingu...
Published on May 1, 2014in Cross-Cultural Research 1.32
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(International University, Cambodia),
Geert Hofstede62
Estimated H-index: 62
(UM: Maastricht University)
The use of nations as units of analysis in cross-cultural studies is a controversial approach as nations may not be culturally homogeneous. However, a recent study by Minkov and Hofstede found that African, Asian, Latin American, and Anglo in-country regions tended to form homogeneous and distinct national clusters on World Values Survey (WVS) items. We extend this research to European regions, as well as randomly formed nationally homogeneous groups of European respondents, using value measures...
Published on Dec 23, 2013
Christian Welzel26
Estimated H-index: 26
Introduction Part I. Understanding Emancipative Values: 1. A theory of emancipation 2. Mapping differences 3. Multi-level drivers 4. Tracing change Part II. Emancipative Values as a Civic Force: 5. Intrinsic wellbeing 6. Benign individualism 7. Collective action Part III. Democratizing Impulses of Emancipative Values: 8. Entitling people 9. The rights revolution 10. The paradox of democracy Part IV. Emancipative Values in Human Civilization: 11. The redirection of civilization 12. The sustainabi...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1.42
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(International University, Cambodia),
Vesselin Ivanov Blagoev5
Estimated H-index: 5
(International University, Cambodia),
Geert Hofstede62
Estimated H-index: 62
(UM: Maastricht University)
Cultural phenomena are usually viewed as possessing some temporal stability. Measured properly, the dimensions that they yield have convincing predictive properties and create clear geographic or economic clusters of countries. Using these criteria, we assess the nature of 10 World Values Survey items that address societal norms. We find that they form two factors at the ecological level. Only one of these (personal-sexual) is unambiguously a cultural dimension, associated with previous measures...
Published on Jul 1, 2012in Journal of World Business 5.79
Vas Taras15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UNCG: University of North Carolina at Greensboro),
Piers Steel26
Estimated H-index: 26
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Bradley L. Kirkman37
Estimated H-index: 37
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
This meta-analysis offers an updated set of national cultural scores along the dimensions of Hofstede's cultural framework. The meta-analytic national cultural indices have two advantages. First, they are based on a larger and more representative sample than that used in Hofstede's or any other cross-cultural comparison study. The data come from 451 empirical studies representing over 2000 samples comprising over half a million individuals from 49 countries and regions. Second, cultural change i...
Published on May 1, 2012in Cross-Cultural Research 1.32
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(International University, Cambodia),
Geert Hofstede62
Estimated H-index: 62
(UM: Maastricht University)
Although many cross-cultural studies have used nations as the units of analysis, the concept of national culture has been challenged on various grounds. One objection is that there may be significant cultural diversity within some countries and similarities across national borders, compromising the concept of national culture. This objection has little empirical support. We used latest World Values Survey data and found that 299 in-country regions from 28 countries in East and Southeast Asia, su...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Asia Pacific Business Review 0.90
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(International University, Cambodia),
Vesselin Ivanov Blagoev5
Estimated H-index: 5
(International University, Cambodia)
There is an ongoing controversy about what Project GLOBE's cultural dimensions measure. GLOBE's work has been criticized by various authors, most recently by McCrae and associates, who view some of GLOBE's scales as unfounded national stereotypes. Further, GLOBE has disregarded the difference between personal values and prescribed norms for others. This paper validates some of GLOBE's dimensions empirically. However, at least two -- humane orientation and performance orientation -- do not genera...
Cited By13
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Technology in Society
Jadranka Švarc3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Jasminka Lažnjak3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Zagreb),
Marina Dabić15
Estimated H-index: 15
(NTU: Nottingham Trent University)
Abstract The aim of the article is to explore the possible impacts of culture on in-country regional differences in innovation capacities and propensity to entrepreneurship using the Hofstede’s model of national culture. There is a number of studies that proved the profound influence of culture on innovation and entrepreneurship capacities. By contrast to cross-country cultural studies, the cross-regional cultural research on innovation and entrepreneurship within a country, especially in Europe...
Published on Feb 15, 2019in Social Indicators Research 1.70
Peter B. Smith41
Estimated H-index: 41
(University of Sussex)
This research is designed to test alternative explanations for changes in national frequencies in reported pro-social behaviors. Representative samples drawn from 136 nations reported whether in the past month they had helped a stranger who needed help, donated money to a charity, and worked as a volunteer for an organization. Change in frequencies of these behaviors over a 6 year interval were examined in relation to changes in values and in social context. Increases were more frequent in more ...
Published on Apr 29, 2019
M.P. Ganesh (IITH: Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad), M. Ángeles López-Cabarcos5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Santiago de Compostela),
Paula Vázquez-Rodríguez4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Santiago de Compostela)
The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of self-leadership on the intention to mentor among university teachers considering the mediating role of self-efficacy and the moderating role of individualism-collectivism dimensions.,A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from Indian (n=88) and Spanish (n=105) university teachers. The hypothesized relationships were analyzed using structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analysis.,Self-leadership ...
Published on Jul 1, 2019
Bernhard Swoboda23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Trier),
Nadine Batton (University of Trier)
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical and empirical comparison of four major national cultural value models for perceived corporate reputation (CR) of multinational corporations (MNCs) across nations: Hofstede, Schwartz, the GLOBE study and Inglehart.,Two consumer surveys on an MNC and on competitors in 25 countries in the year 2015 (n=20,288 and 25,397) were used for the first time to compare the roles of the cultural value models as antecedents of CR, using multilevel structura...
Published on May 11, 2019in Developmental Science 4.10
Kirby Deater-Deckard48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst),
Jennifer Godwin8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Duke University)
+ 15 AuthorsLei Chang34
Estimated H-index: 34
(UM: University of Macau)
Published on May 17, 2019in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Logan L. Watts (The Graduate Center, CUNY), Logan L. Watts (The Graduate Center, CUNY)+ 0 AuthorsDeanne N. Den Hartog44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
Transformational leadership is commonly assumed to facilitate employee innovation in all cultures. Drawing upon field studies from 17 countries, this meta-analysis revealed that supervisor transformational leadership is positively related to individual- and team-level innovation regardless of national boundaries. However, the relationship trended somewhat more strongly in countries with higher levels of uncertainty avoidance. These findings suggest that employee innovation in most countries can ...
Published on Apr 26, 2019
Michael Minkov (UT: University of Tartu), Pinaki Dutt2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 4 AuthorsVesselin Ivanov Blagoev5
Estimated H-index: 5
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the replicability of Hofstede’s value-based dimensions – masculinity–femininity (MAS–FEM) and individualism–collectivism (IDV–COLL) – in the field of consumer behavior, and to compare cultural prioritizations with respect to disposable income budgets across the world. Design/methodology/approach The authors asked 51,529 probabilistically selected respondents in 52 countries (50 nationally representative consumer panels and community samples from anoth...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Cross-Cultural Research 1.32
Andrzej Bukowski1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Jagiellonian University),
Seweryn Rudnicki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(AGH University of Science and Technology)
This article re-examines the effects of culture on national innovation rates. Pointing to the innovation success of some East Asian countries, it argues that the cultural dimension of individualism is not able to fully account for the role of culture in national innovativeness, and there is a need to include a wider set of cultural factors in the analysis. Several competing measures of national innovation performance over the last decade and Hofstede’s measures of culture, as well as their recen...
Published on Feb 18, 2019in Journal of Education Policy 2.68
Jeremy Rappleye9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Kyoto University),
Hikaru Komatsu24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Kyoto University)
+ 2 AuthorsHazel Rose Markus69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Stanford University)
ABSTRACTFacing increasing critique that PISA focuses too narrowly on cognitive achievement and human/knowledge capital, the OECD has recently shifted some of its focus to student happiness. The 201...