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Wheat - A Precious Nutrient That Can Become Harmful: Wheat/Gluten Related Disorders

Published on Jan 1, 2017
· DOI :10.21767/2575-7733.1000013
F. Bonvicini11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Francesco Simeoni + 2 AuthorsAntonio Gasbarrini70
Estimated H-index: 70
Cite
Abstract
Wheat grains have a complex structure which contains an organized distribution of nutrients. Cooking induces gluten formation. Celiac Disease and Wheat Allergy are well known wheat-related disorders, the first being a gluten-dependent autoimmune enteropathy, the latter a hypersensitivity IgE - mediated reaction. The pathogenetic mechanism of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still under investigation. The clinical diagnosis is: the presence, in relation to the ingestion of gluten containing foods, of intestinal and extra- intestinal symptoms in patients where celiac disease and wheat allergy have already been excluded. There is ongoing evidence that non- gluten derived proteins have an important pathogenetic role in non-celiac gluten sensitivity and probably also in celiac disease: Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors-ATIs are proteins that are also present in rye and barley; they are triggers of innate immune response in non-celiac gluten sensitivity. They may also exacerbate immunomediate inflammatory bowel diseases. Gluten-free diet is the only effective therapy both in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation in Celiac Disease: -exogenous enzyme gluten digestion to obtain less toxic fragments; - molecules able to be remodeling enterocyte tight junctions which become permeable in celiac disease. Researches should be devoted to creating a less toxic grain, while to date grain has been genetically modified to increase gluten content. We advise a future for researches in agronomy. A role for functional and nutraceutical foods must be investigated. Another emerging issue is due to the consciousness of wheat/gluten-microbiota-brain and mind interactions.
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References27
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Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 3.63
Gregory Wayne Yelland11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Monash University)
Much is known about the serious neurological effects of gluten ingestion in coeliac disease patients, such as sporadic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy, although the causal links to gluten are still under debate. However, such disorders are observed in only a small percentage of coeliac patients. Much less is known about the transient cognitive impairments to memory, attention, executive function, and the speed of cognitive processing reported by the majority of patients with coeliac disease. Th...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in European Journal of Nutrition 4.45
Karla A. Bascuñán5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Chile),
María Catalina Vespa1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Chile),
Magdalena Araya Quezada28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Chile)
Purpose The only effective and safe treatment of celiac disease (CD) continues being strict exclusion of gluten for life, the so-called gluten-free diet (GFD). Although this treatment is highly successful, following strict GFD poses difficulties to patients in family, social and working contexts, deteriorating his/her quality of life. We aimed to review main characteristics of GFD with special emphasis on factors that may interfere with adherence to it.
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Gut 17.94
Melanie Uhde4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CUMC: Columbia University Medical Center),
Mary Ajamian5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CUMC: Columbia University Medical Center)
+ 6 AuthorsArmin Alaedini18
Estimated H-index: 18
Objective Wheat gluten and related proteins can trigger an autoimmune enteropathy, known as coeliac disease, in people with genetic susceptibility. However, some individuals experience a range of symptoms in response to wheat ingestion, without the characteristic serological or histological evidence of coeliac disease. The aetiology and mechanism of these symptoms are unknown, and no biomarkers have been identified. We aimed to determine if sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease ...
Published on Mar 29, 2016in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.87
Paola Bressan20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UNIPD: University of Padua),
Peter Kramer11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UNIPD: University of Padua)
Perhaps because gastroenterology, immunology, toxicology, and the nutrition and agricultural sciences are outside of their competence and responsibility, psychologists and psychiatrists typically fail to appreciate the impact that food can have on their patients’ condition. Here we attempt to help correct this situation by reviewing, in non-technical, plain English, how cereal grains—the world’s most abundant food source—can affect human behavior and mental health. We present the implications fo...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in International Journal of Obesity 4.51
Rachel Freire4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Luciana Rodrigues Fernandes11
Estimated H-index: 11
+ 10 AuthorsSérgio Henrique Sousa Santos20
Estimated H-index: 20
Wheat gluten intake increases weight gain and adiposity associated with reduced thermogenesis and energy expenditure in an animal model of obesity
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2.72
Antonio Picarelli24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Raffaele Borghini6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 12 AuthorsSilvia Lonardi21
Estimated H-index: 21
Background: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is an emergent condition, the framework of which is yet unclear, whereas the diagnosis is suggested only by gluten-dependent symptoms after excluding wheat allergy and celiac disease (CD). Our goal was to highlight intestinal, systemic, and oral alterations to clarify the NCGS pathogenesis and identify new diagnostic tools. Study: A total of 60 NCGS patients, 20 untreated CD, 20 treated CD, and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. The differential...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2.72
M C Cénit16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Pilar Codoñer-Franch19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Yolanda Sanz54
Estimated H-index: 54
Stefano Bibbò13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Gianluca Ianiro21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 4 AuthorsG. Cammarota46
Estimated H-index: 46
Published on Jun 18, 2015in Nutrients 4.17
Carlo Catassi48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Marche Polytechnic University),
Luca Elli19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico)
+ 27 AuthorsJernej Dolinsek4
Estimated H-index: 4
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected by either celiac disease or wheat allergy. Given the lack of a NCGS biomarker, there is the need for standardizing the procedure leading to the diagnosis confirmation. In this paper we report experts’ recommendations on how the diagnostic protocol should be performed for the confirmation of NCGS. A full ...
Published on Jun 1, 2015in Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology 3.58
Detlef Schuppan73
Estimated H-index: 73
(University of Mainz),
Geethanjali Pickert3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Mainz)
+ 1 AuthorsVictor F. Zevallos9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Mainz)
Abstract Non allergy-non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) has become a common and often overrated diagnosis. Skepticism mainly relates to patients with prominent intestinal symptoms in the absence of general or intestinal signs of inflammation. There is consensus that the major wheat sensitivities, celiac disease and wheat allergy, have to be ruled out which may be difficult for wheat allergy. The non-inflammatory intolerances to carbohydrates, mainly lactose and FODMAPs (fermentable oligi-, di-,...
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