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Psychometrics and the neuroscience of individual differences: Internal consistency limits between-subjects effects.

Published on Aug 1, 2017in Journal of Abnormal Psychology5.519
· DOI :10.1037/abn0000274
Greg Hajcak66
Estimated H-index: 66
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Alexandria Meyer14
Estimated H-index: 14
(FSU: Florida State University),
Roman Kotov38
Estimated H-index: 38
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
Abstract
  • References (51)
  • Citations (19)
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References51
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#1Katherine R. Luking (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 11
#2Brady D. Nelson (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 19
Last. Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
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Abstract Background Abnormal neural response to reward is increasingly thought to function as a biological correlate of emerging psychopathology during adolescence. However, this view assumes that such responses have good psychometric properties, especially internal consistency—an assumption that is rarely tested. Methods Internal consistency (i.e., split-half reliability) was calculated for event-related potential (ERP) and blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) responses to monetary gain and loss...
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#1Alexandria Meyer (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 14
#2Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
Last. Daniel N. Klein (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 73
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#2Matthew D. Lerner (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 19
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This article describes the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The description includes background, rationale, goals, and the way the initiative has been developed and organized. The central RDoC concepts are summarized and the current matrix of constructs that have been vetted by workshops of extramural scientists is depicted. A number of theoretical and methodological issues that can arise in connection with the nature of RDoC constructs are highli...
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Last. Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
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The error-related negativity (ERN) currently appears as a physiological measure in relation to three Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs: Cognitive Control, Sustained Threat, and Reward Learning. We propose a conceptual model in which variance in the ERN reflects individual differences in the degree to which errors are evaluated as threatening. We also discuss evidence for the placement of the ERN in the “Sustained Threat” construct, as well as evidence that the ERN may more specifically ...
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#1Christopher J. Patrick (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 68
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As highlighted by articles in the current special issue, the RDoC initiative holds promise for advancing understanding of mental health problems. However, the initiative is at its early stages and it remains unclear what level of progress can be achieved and how quickly. In this closing article, we identify major challenges facing RDoC and propose concrete approaches to addressing these challenges, including (a) clearer specification of clinical problems for study, with use of symptom dimensions...
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Abstract The ability to detect and respond to errors is critical to successful adaptation to a changing environment. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential (ERP) component, is a well-validated neural response to errors and reflects the error monitoring activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Additionally, the ERN is implicated in several processes key to adaptive functioning. Abnormalities in error-related brain activity have been linked to multiple forms of psyc...
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The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) reflects a paradigm shift in mental health research aimed at establishing a science of psychopathology that is grounded in neuroscience. In many ways, the RDoC approach to research has been utilized for decades by psychophysiologists who have leveraged a range of biological measures to study variability in psychological processes as a function of individual differences. We highlight the critical role of psychophysiology in the era of RDoC, and briefly review t...
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Psychometric studies of the ERN, CRN, Pe, and Pc ERPs are increasing. Coherent integration of these results is difficult with classical test theory because the definition of error depends on the measure of reliability. This study used generalizability theory, which extends the ideas of classical test theory, as a framework for evaluating the influence of psychopathology and number of trials on dependability of measurement. Participants included 34 people meeting criteria for major depression, 29...
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Recent methodological progress has greatly facilitated the determination of the connectivity and functional characterization of complex neural circuits. In this Review, Tovote, Fadok and Luthi examine studies that have adopted circuit-based approaches to gain insight into how the brain governs fear and anxiety.
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To ensure adequate reliability (i.e., internal consistency), it is common in studies using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to exclude participants for having too few trials. This practice is particularly relevant for error-related ERPs, such as error-related negativity (ERN), where the number of recorded ERN trials is not entirely under the researcher's control. Furthermore, there is a widespread practice of inferring reliability based on published psychometric research, which assumes that...
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This study examined associations of performance-monitoring event-related potentials (ERPs) from go/no-go and flanker tasks with one another, and with psychopathy-related traits of disinhibition, meanness, and boldness. A task-dependent relationship was evident between the error-related negativity (ERN) and trait disinhibition, with high-disinhibited participants showing reduced no-go ERN but not flanker ERN. Disinhibition was also inversely related to variants of the P3 and the error positivity ...
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Psychological assessments typically rely on self-report and behavioral measures. Augmenting these with neurophysiological measures of the construct in question may increase the accuracy and predictive power of these assessments. Moreover, thinking about neurophysiological measures from an assessment perspective may facilitate under-utilized research approaches (e.g., brain-based recruitment of participants). However, the lack of normative data for most neurophysiological measures has prevented t...
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Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic risk factor for internalizing disorders. Prior work has found that IU may be associated with either increased reactivity to threat or, alternatively, with decreased differential responding between threat and nonthreat/safety cues (i.e., threat generalization). For example, work by Morriss, Macdonald, & van Reekum (2016) found that higher IU was associated with increased threat generalization during acquisition (using skin conductance response ...
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Abstract Performance-monitoring event-related brain potentials (ERPs), such as the error-related negativity (ERN) and reward positivity (RewP), are advocated as biomarkers of depression symptoms and risk. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated effect size heterogeneity in the ERN and RewP literatures. Hence, advocating these ERPs as biomarkers of depression might be premature or possibly misguided due to the selective reporting of significant analyses on the part of researchers (e.g., p-hacki...
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