scinapse is loading now...

Extreme lightweight structures: avian feathers and bones

Published on Sep 1, 2017in Materials Today 24.54
· DOI :10.1016/j.mattod.2017.02.004
Tarah N. Sullivan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, San Diego),
Bin Wang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsMarc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego)
Abstract
Flight is not the exclusive domain of birds; mammals (bats), insects, and some fish have independently developed this ability by the process of convergent evolution. Birds, however, greatly outperform other flying animals in efficiency and duration; for example the common swift ( Apus apus ) has recently been reported to regularly fly for periods of 10 months during migration. Birds owe this extraordinary capability to feathers and bones, which are extreme lightweight biological materials. They achieve this crucial function through their efficient design spanning multiple length scales. Both feathers and bones have unusual combinations of structural features organized hierarchically from nano- to macroscale and enable a balance between lightweight and bending/torsional stiffness and strength. The complementary features between the avian bone and feather are reviewed here, for the first time, and provide insights into nature's approach at creating structures optimized for flight. We reveal a novel aspect of the feather vane, showing that its barbule spacing is consistently within the range 8–16 μm for birds of hugely different masses such as Anna's Hummingbird ( Calypte anna ) (4 g) and the Andean Condor ( Vultur gryphus ) (11,000 g). Features of the feather and bone are examined using the structure-property relationships that define Materials Science. We elucidate the role of aerodynamic loading on observed reinforced macrostructural features and efficiently tailored shapes adapted for specialized applications, as well as composite material utilization. These unique features will inspire synthetic structures with maximized performance/weight for potential use in future transportation systems.
  • References (83)
  • Citations (15)
Cite
References83
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Advanced Science 12.44
Bin Wang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of California, San Diego),
Marc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego)
Only seldom are square/rectangular shapes found in nature. One notable exception is the bird feather rachis, which raises the question: why is the proximal base round but the distal end square? Herein, it is uncovered that, given the same area, square cross sections show higher bending rigidity and are superior in maintaining the original shape, whereas circular sections ovalize upon flexing. This circular-to-square shape change increases the ability of the flight feathers to resist flexure whil...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Acta Biomaterialia 6.38
Bin Wang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of California, San Diego),
Marc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego)
Abstract Flight feathers are unique among a variety of keratinous appendages in that they are lightweight, stiff and strong. They are designed to withstand aerodynamic forces, but their morphology and structure have been oversimplified and thus understudied historically. Here we present an investigation of the shaft from seagull primary feathers, elucidate the hierarchical fibrous and porous structure along the shaft length, and correlate the tensile and nanomechanical properties to the fiber or...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Current Biology 9.25
Lida Xing18
Estimated H-index: 18
(China University of Geosciences),
Ryan C. McKellar5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Regina)
+ 11 AuthorsAlexander P. Wolfe47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Alberta)
Summary In the two decades since the discovery of feathered dinosaurs [1–3], the range of plumage known from non-avialan theropods has expanded significantly, confirming several features predicted by developmentally informed models of feather evolution [4–10]. However, three-dimensional feather morphology and evolutionary patterns remain difficult to interpret, due to compression in sedimentary rocks [9, 11]. Recent discoveries in Cretaceous amber from Canada, France, Japan, Lebanon, Myanmar, an...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Acta Biomaterialia 6.38
Tarah N. Sullivan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, San Diego),
Andrei Pissarenko2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, San Diego)
+ 3 AuthorsMarc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego)
Abstract The flying feathers of birds are keratinous appendages designed for maximum performance with a minimum weight penalty. Thus, their design contains ingenious combinations of components that optimize lift, stiffness, aerodynamics, and damage resistance. This design involves two main parts: a central shaft that prescribes stiffness and lateral vanes which allows for the capture of air. Within the feather vane, barbs branch from the shaft and barbules branch from barbs, forming a flat surfa...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Progress in Materials Science 23.75
Bin Wang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of California, San Diego),
Wen Yang16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of California, San Diego)
+ 1 AuthorsMarc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego)
Abstract A ubiquitous biological material, keratin represents a group of insoluble, usually high-sulfur content and filament-forming proteins, constituting the bulk of epidermal appendages such as hair, nails, claws, turtle scutes, horns, whale baleen, beaks, and feathers. These keratinous materials are formed by cells filled with keratin and are considered ‘dead tissues’. Nevertheless, they are among the toughest biological materials, serving as a wide variety of interesting functions, e.g. sca...
118 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Marine Structures 2.49
E. Alfred Mohammed3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Newcastle University),
S Benson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Newcastle University)
+ 1 AuthorsRsdow10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Newcastle University)
Abstract Assessment of the ultimate longitudinal strength of hull girders under combined waveloads can be of particular importance especially for ships with large deck openings and low torsional rigidity. In such cases the horizontal and torsional moments may approach or exceed the vertical bending moment when a vessel progresses in oblique seas. This paper presents a direct calculation methodology for the evaluation of the ultimate strength of a 10,000 TEU container ship by considering the comb...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Current Biology 9.25
Cédric Delevoye15
Estimated H-index: 15
(PSL Research University),
Xavier Heiligenstein4
Estimated H-index: 4
(PSL Research University)
+ 9 AuthorsVictor Faundez39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Emory University)
Recycling endosomes consist of a tubular network that emerges from vacuolar sorting endosomes and diverts cargoes toward the cell surface, the Golgi, or lysosome-related organelles. How recycling tubules are formed remains unknown. We show that recycling endosome biogenesis requires the protein complex BLOC-1. Mutations in BLOC-1 subunits underlie an inherited disorder characterized by albinism, the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome, and are associated with schizophrenia risk. We show here that BLOC-1 c...
245 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2015in Acta Biomaterialia 6.38
Z.Q. Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Da Jiao7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsZhe Zhang17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Feather shaft, which is primarily featured by a cylinder filled with foam, possesses a unique combination of mechanical robustness and flexibility with a low density through natural evolution and selection. Here the hierarchical structures of peacock’s tail coverts shaft and its components are systematically characterized from millimeter to nanometer length scales. The variations in constituent and geometry along the length are examined. The mechanical properties under both dry and wet ...
24 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Egor P. Popov34
Estimated H-index: 34
,
Toader A. Balan1
Estimated H-index: 1
1. Stress. 2. Strain. 3. Axial Deformation of Bars: Statically Determinate Systems. 4. Axial Deformation of Bars: Statically Indeterminate Systems. 5. Generalized Hooke's Law: Pressure Vessels. 6. Torsion. 7. Beam Statics. 8. Symmetric Beam Bending. 9. Unsymmetric (Skew) Beam Bending. 10. Shear Stresses in Beams. 11. Stress and Strain Transformation. 12. Yield and Fracture Criteria. 13. Elastic Stress Analysis. 14. Beam Deflections by Direct Integration. 15. Beam Deflections by the Moment-area M...
286 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Ceramics International 3.06
Sara Sadeghpour1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Islamic Azad University),
Amirmostafa Amirjani1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsAli Zamanian18
Estimated H-index: 18
Abstract In this research mechanical activation derived nanostructured calcium zirconium silicate(Ca 3 ZrSi 2 O 9 or Baghdadite)-based scaffolds were fabricated by a water-based freeze casting method. By varying the solid loading of the mixture and the cooling rate, a range of structures with different pore sizes and strength characteristics were achieved and the effects of cooling rate and solid loading on pore sizes and mechanical characteristics of scaffolds were studied. Increasing the solid...
26 Citations Source Cite
Cited By15
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Sustainable Materials and Technologies
Elena Dieckmann1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Imperial College London),
Kosta Eleftheriou (Imperial College London)+ 3 AuthorsC.R. Cheeseman36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Imperial College London)
Abstract Feathers from poultry are an abundant, globally available waste. The current beneficial reuse for feathers involves autoclaving them to produce feather meal, an animal feed with low economic value. This paper reports on the production and performance of new feather-derived materials. These have potential to provide a higher value application for waste feathers. Feather fibres, cotton fibres and polyethylene/polypropylene bi-component fibres (blended 55:20:25 by weight) have been air-lai...
Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2019in Additive manufacturing 2.30
Anton du Plessis13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Stellenbosch University),
Chris Broeckhoven7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 4 AuthorsDhruv Bhate1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Arizona State University)
Abstract This review article summarizes the current state-of-the-art for biomimicry in additive manufacturing . Biomimicry is the practice of learning from and emulating nature - which can be increasingly realized in engineering applications due to progress in additive manufacturing (AM). AM has grown tremendously in recent years, with improvements in technology and resulting material properties sometimes exceeding those of equivalent parts produced by traditional production processes. This has ...
1 Citations Source Cite
Jian Zhang16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Guoqi Tan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 6 AuthorsZhiqing Zhang50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Operating mainly as a type of weapon, the beetle horn develops an impressive mechanical efficiency based on chitinous materials to maximize the injury to opponent and simultaneously minimize the damage to itself and underlying brain under stringent loading conditions. Here the cephalic horn of the beetle Allomyrina dichotoma is probed using multiscale characterization combined with finite element simulations to explore the origins of its biomechanical functionality from the perspective ...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Acta Biomaterialia 6.38
Zengqian Liu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Yanyan Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 4 AuthorsRobert O. Ritchie90
Estimated H-index: 90
(University of California, Berkeley)
Abstract Seeking strategies to enhance the overall combinations of mechanical properties is of great significance for engineering materials, but still remains a key challenge because many of these properties are often mutually exclusive. Here we reveal from the perspective of materials science and mechanics that adaptive structural reorientation during deformation, which is an operating mechanism in a wide variety of composite biological materials, functions more than being a form of passive res...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Acta Biomaterialia 6.38
Anton du Plessis13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Stellenbosch University),
Chris Broeckhoven7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Antwerp)
Abstract Albert Einstein once said “look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better”. Looking deep into nature has in the last few years become much more achievable through the use of high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT). The non-destructive nature of microCT, combined with three-dimensional visualization and analysis, allows for the most complete internal and external “view” of natural materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scale. This capab...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 14, 2019in Journal of Materials Research 1.50
Hortense Le Ferrand4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Nanyang Technological University)
Despite lower hardness, stiffness, and resistance to harsh environments, heavy metallic parts and soft polymer-based composites are often preferred to ceramics because they offer higher resilience. By contrast, highly mineralized biomaterials combine these properties through hierarchical and heterogeneous architecture. Reproducing these internal designs into synthetic highly mineralized materials would therefore widen their range of application. To this aim, external fields have been used to con...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Science Advances
Tarah N. Sullivan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, San Diego),
Marc A. Meyers69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University of California, San Diego),
E. Arzt (Saarland University)
Aves are an incredibly diverse class of animals, ranging greatly in size and thriving in a wide variety of environments. Here, we explore the scaling trends of bird wings in connection with their flight performance. The tensile strength of avian bone is hypothesized to be a limiting factor in scaling the humerus with mass, which is corroborated by its experimentally determined allometric scaling trend. We provide a mechanics analysis that explains the scaling allometry of the wing humerus length...
Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Gian N. Frongia1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Sassari),
Marco Muzzeddu5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 7 AuthorsSalvatore Naitana23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Sassari)
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 28, 2018in PLOS ONE 2.77
Suzanne Amador Kane6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Haverford College),
Daniel Van Beveren (Haverford College), Roslyn Dakin11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of British Columbia)
Feathers act as vibrotactile sensors that can detect mechanical stimuli during avian flight and tactile navigation, suggesting that they may also detect stimuli during social displays. In this study, we present the first measurements of the biomechanical properties of the feather crests found on the heads of birds, with an emphasis on those from the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). We show that in peafowl these crest feathers are coupled to filoplumes, small feathers known to function as mechano...
Source Cite