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Palm oil and threats to a critically important food source: The chloropropanols—Caution, controversy, and correction

Published on Jan 1, 2017
· DOI :10.1177/2397847317699844
Roger Clemens15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
A Wallacehayes24
Estimated H-index: 24
+ 1 AuthorsPeter Pressman3
Estimated H-index: 3
Sources
Abstract
The oil palm, an ancient tropical tree species that originated in West Africa, has a history of centuries-long use both as a food and a medicine. Based on its higher saturated fatty acid composition, primarily palmitic acid, concerns have been flagged about its nutritional attributes. Elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol effects of the associated palmitic acid is far less profound than animal sources of this fatty acid and is linked with multiple health benefits. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority raised issues about potential health risks of the chloropropanols, heat- or acid-induced food contaminants created during the refining of all edible oils, and some hydrolyzed proteins. Despite the fact that the levels of 3-monochloropropane1,2 diol and its glycidyl esters are generally <800 ppb and without demonstrated toxicological effects in humans, the chloropropanols in palm oil appear to be a lightning rod for global criticism. The toxicological data are reviewed and evaluated, and an ...
  • References (48)
  • Citations (3)
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References48
Newest
#1Xiaoli Peng (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 4
#2Jing Gan (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 2
Last. Xiaodong Xia (NWAFU: Northwest A&F University)H-Index: 13
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Abstract 3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is the most toxic chloropropanols compounds in foodstuff which mainly generated during thermal processing. Kidney is one of the primary target organs for 3-MCPD. Using human embryonic kidney cell (HEK293FT) as an in vitro model, we found that 3-MCPD caused concentration-dependent increase in cytoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and MTT assays. HEK293FT cell treated with 3-MCPD suffered the decrease of mitochondria...
9 CitationsSource
#1Lu Zhao (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 5
#2Xiefan Fang (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 3
Last. Soonkyu Chung (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 25
view all 4 authors...
Tocotrienols (T3s) are a subclass of unsaturated vitamin E that have been extensively studied for their anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in numerous cancer studies. Recently, T3s have received increasing attention due to their previously unrecognized property to attenuate obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this review, we comprehensively evaluated the recent published scientific literature about the influence of T3s on obesity, with a partic...
14 CitationsSource
1 CitationsSource
#1Byoung-Seok Lee (CNU: Chungnam National University)H-Index: 10
#2Sang-Jin ParkH-Index: 7
Last. Hwa-Young Son (CNU: Chungnam National University)H-Index: 19
view all 7 authors...
Abstract 3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to m...
9 CitationsSource
#1Albert Braeuning (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 21
#2Stefanie Sawada (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 4
Last. Alfonso Lampen (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 26
view all 4 authors...
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 3-MCPD fatty acid esters are process contaminants in foodstuff which are generated during thermal treatment. Long-term exposure to 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD esters causes toxicity especially in kidney and testis. 3-MCPD esters are efficiently hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that their toxicity is mediated by free 3-MCPD. Combined exposure to free 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD released from 3-MCPD esters might lead to dietary consumption above the tolerab...
11 CitationsSource
#1Sandjaja (NIHR: National Institute for Health Research)H-Index: 1
#2Idrus Jus'atH-Index: 4
Last. Eline L Korenromp (Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition)H-Index: 2
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Objective To assess oil consumption, vitamin A intake and retinol status before and a year after the fortification of unbranded palm oil with retinyl palmitate. Design Pre–post evaluation between two surveys. Setting Twenty-four villages in West Java. Subjects Poor households were randomly sampled. Serum retinol (adjusted for subclinical infection) was analysed in cross-sectional samples of lactating mothers (baseline n 324/endline n 349), their infants aged 6–11 months ( n 318/ n 335) and child...
14 CitationsSource
#1Stefanie Sawada (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 4
#2Axel Oberemm (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 15
Last. Alfonso Lampen (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 26
view all 7 authors...
Thermal treatment of foodstuff containing fats and salt promotes the formation of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its fatty acid esters. 3-MCPD-exposed rats develop testicular lesions and Leydig cell tumors. 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD ester toxicity is thought to be caused by 3-MCPD and its metabolites, since 3-MCPD esters are hydrolyzed in the gut. Inhibition of glycolysis is one of the few known molecular mechanisms of 3-MCPD toxicity. To obtain deeper insight into this process, a comparative pro...
16 CitationsSource
#1I Ogan (McGill University)H-Index: 4
#2Marie-Josée Dumont (McGill University)H-Index: 17
Last. Michael Ngadi (McGill University)H-Index: 33
view all 3 authors...
The oil palm tree is an ancient tropical plant that originated from West Africa. Palm oil has centuries׳ long use as food and medicine. This review covers the recent significant materials found in the literature on palm oil processing, refining, and use in frying especially in blends with other vegetable oils. Crude palm oil (CPO) is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis). The oil is rich in palmitic acid, β-carotene and vitamin E. CPO has been fractionated mainly into ...
88 CitationsSource
Short path distillation was applied to produce edible oils low in 3-MCPD-FE and G-FE, but with comparable quality to conventionally deodorized oils. By use of the Response Surface Methology the effect of different process parameters (condenser temperature (X1), evaporator temperature (X2), stirrer speed (X3) and pump frequency (X4)) on quality parameters of the oil (content of 3-MCPD-FE/G-FE (minimal), acid value (minimal), content of vitamin-E-active compounds (sum of tocopherols and tocotrieno...
9 CitationsSource
#1Odia OjH-Index: 7
#2Sandra N OforiH-Index: 5
Last. Omosivie MadukaH-Index: 5
view all 3 authors...
Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key ...
27 CitationsSource
Cited By3
Newest
#1Eva GesteiroH-Index: 5
Last. Marcela González-GrossH-Index: 46
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Internationally recognized Spanish experts in the food industry, nutrition, toxicology, sustainability, and veterinary science met in Madrid on July 2018 to develop a consensus about palm oil (PO) as a food ingredient. Their aim was to provide a useful, evidence-based point of reference about PO. Scientific evidence about the role of PO in food safety, nutrition and sustainability was analyzed. Main conclusions were: (1) RSPO foundation responded to the environmental impact of palm crops. The Am...
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#1Kok Ming Goh (UPM: Universiti Putra Malaysia)H-Index: 2
#2M. Maulidiani (UMT: Universiti Malaysia Terengganu)H-Index: 1
Last. Chin Ping Tan (UPM: Universiti Putra Malaysia)H-Index: 42
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Abstract The technique of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is widely used to generate spectral data for use in the detection of food contaminants. Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) is a refining process-induced contaminant that is found in palm-based fats and oils. In this study, a chemometrics approach was used to evaluate the relationship between the FTIR spectra and the total MCPD content of a palm-based cooking oil. A total of 156 samples were used to develop partial least squares regressi...
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