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Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students

Published on May 1, 2017in Research Policy 5.42
· DOI :10.1016/j.respol.2017.02.008
Katia Levecque16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UGent: Ghent University),
Frederik Anseel21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UGent: Ghent University)
+ 2 AuthorsLydia Gisle7
Estimated H-index: 7
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Abstract
Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of PhD students in Flanders, Belgium (N = 3659). Second, we compare PhD students to three other samples: (1) highly educated in the general population (N = 769); (2) highly educated employees (N = 592); and (3) higher education students (N = 333). Third, we assess those organizational factors relating to the role of PhD students that predict mental health status. Results based on 12 mental health symptoms (GHQ-12) showed that 32% of PhD students are at risk of having or developing a common psychiatric disorder, especially depression. This estimate was significantly higher than those obtained in the comparison groups. Organizational policies were significantly associated with the prevalence of mental health problems. Especially work-family interface, job demands and job control, the supervisor’s leadership style, team decision-making culture, and perception of a career outside academia are linked to mental health problems.
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References71
Newest
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Academy of Management Journal 7.19
Marcie LePine1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Yiwen Zhang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(HKU: University of Hong Kong)
+ 1 AuthorsBruce Louis Rich9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CSUSM: California State University San Marcos)
We develop and test a theoretical model that explores how individuals appraise different types of stressful job demands and how these cognitive appraisals impact job performance. The model also exp...
30 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Management Science 4.22
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Harvard University),
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
(Stanford University),
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Stanford University)
Even though epidemiological evidence links specific workplace stressors to health outcomes, the aggregate contribution of these factors to overall mortality and health spending in the United States is not known. In this paper, we build a model to estimate the excess mortality and incremental health expenditures associated with exposure to the following 10 workplace stressors: unemployment, lack of health insurance, exposure to shift work, long working hours, job insecurity, work–family conflict,...
54 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Research Policy 5.42
John Walsii28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
You-Na Lee6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
While science is traditionally treated as a distinct domain of work organization, increasingly science is organized around larger and larger work groups that resemble small firms, with knowledge as the product. The growth of organized science raises the question of whether we also see a bureaucratic structuring of scientific work groups as predicted by organization theory, with implications for the academic credit system and scientific labor markets. Building on organization theory, we examine t...
26 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Nature 43.07
Helen Shen7
Estimated H-index: 7
As institutions attempt to redefine the postdoctoral position, early-career researchers are joining together to wage a battle for proper benefits.
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2015in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 5.13
Inés Martínez-Corts3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Evangelia Demerouti60
Estimated H-index: 60
+ 1 AuthorsMarina Boz3
Estimated H-index: 3
This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work–task and relationship conflict–spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2015in Research Policy 5.42
You-Na Lee6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
John Walsii28
Estimated H-index: 28
(GRIPS: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies),
Jian Wang11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
The increasing dominance of team science highlights the importance of understanding the effects of team composition on the creativity of research results. In this paper, we analyze the effect of team size, and field and task variety on creativity. Furthermore, we unpack two facets of creativity in science: novelty and impact. We find that increasing team size has an inverted-U shaped relation with novelty. We also find that the size–novelty relationship is largely due to the relation between siz...
52 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
,
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
Extensive research focuses on the causes of workplace-induced stress. However, policy efforts to tackle the ever-increasing health costs and poor health outcomes in the United States have largely ignored the health effects of psychosocial workplace stressors such as high job demands, economic insecurity, and long work hours. Using meta-analysis, we summarize 228 studies assessing the effects of ten workplace stressors on four health outcomes. We find that job insecurity increases the odds of rep...
16 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Journal of Applied Psychology 5.07
Frank A. Bosco11
Estimated H-index: 11
(VCU: Virginia Commonwealth University),
Herman Aguinis54
Estimated H-index: 54
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
+ 2 AuthorsCharles A. Pierce30
Estimated H-index: 30
(U of M: University of Memphis)
Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation a...
144 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Journal of Management 9.06
Allison M. Ellis4
Estimated H-index: 4
(PSU: Portland State University),
Talya N. Bauer32
Estimated H-index: 32
(PSU: Portland State University)
+ 3 AuthorsLauren S. Simon10
Estimated H-index: 10
(PSU: Portland State University)
Although the stress and socialization literatures have flourished over the past several decades, they have done so largely independently, and our understanding of the cost of stress to organizations in the form of newcomer turnover, lowered adjustment, and the health and well-being of newcomers is largely unknown. This review takes an explicitly newcomer-centric perspective toward the socialization process by examining newcomer experiences through the lens of popular models of work stress, inclu...
30 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 8, 2014in Frontiers in Psychology 2.13
Gretchen M. Reevy6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CSUEB: California State University, East Bay),
Grace Deason7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UWL: University of Wisconsin–La Crosse)
Nationwide in the United States, 70% of faculty members in higher education are employed off the tenure-track. Nearly all of these non-tenure-track (NTT) appointments share a quality that may produce stress for those who hold them: contingency. Most NTT appointments are contingent on budget, enrollment, or both, and the majority of contingent faculty members are hired for one quarter or semester at a time. Significant research has investigated the effects of contingency on teaching, students, de...
23 Citations Source Cite
Cited By52
Newest
Published on Oct 15, 2018
Tamarinde L. Haven1
Estimated H-index: 1
(VU: VU University Amsterdam),
Marije Esther Evalien de Goede + 1 AuthorsFrans J. Oort47
Estimated H-index: 47
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
The emphasis on impact factors and the quantity of publications intensifies competition between researchers. This competition was traditionally considered an incentive to produce high-quality work, but there are unwanted side-effects of this competition like publication pressure. To measure the effect of publication pressure on researchers, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ) was developed. Upon using the PPQ, some issues came to light that motivated a revision. We constructed two new s...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Research Policy 5.42
Anders Broström9
Estimated H-index: 9
(KTH: Royal Institute of Technology)
This study investigates how research group characteristics relate to the early career success of PhD candidates who are trained in the group. In particular, we study how the citation impact of early-career PhDs is related to the staff composition and the funding of the group. Using data on a cohort of Swedish doctoral graduates in science, engineering, mathematics and medicine, two sets of findings are obtained. First, students who were trained in groups with a lower number of PhD students perfo...
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Published on Jul 2, 2019
Justine Fam3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UNSW: University of New South Wales),
Jessica C. Lee4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
The number of students enrolling in postgraduate by research degrees has seen a large increase in recent years, a trend which is evident globally as well as within Australia. However, the rate at which PhD students are dropping out has also increased, indicating that students are not receiving adequate resources to support them throughout their candidature. We highlight that mentoring programs are effective in addressing inequality between PhD students, and describe a program that we have recent...
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Published on Jun 24, 2019in Nature Biotechnology 31.86
Teresa M. Evans5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Texas at Austin),
Lindsay Bira2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas at Austin),
Nathan L. Vanderford9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UK: University of Kentucky)
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Published on Jul 1, 2019in Nature Biotechnology 31.86
Meghan A. Duffy25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UM: University of Michigan),
Carly Thanhouser (UM: University of Michigan), Holly A. Derry15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UM: University of Michigan)
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Published on Jun 19, 2019in PLOS ONE 2.78
Tamarinde L. Haven1
Estimated H-index: 1
(VU: VU University Amsterdam),
L.M. Bouter138
Estimated H-index: 138
(VU: VU University Amsterdam)
+ 1 AuthorsJoeri K. Tijdink1
Estimated H-index: 1
(VU: VU University Amsterdam)
Publications determine to a large extent the possibility to stay in academia (“publish or perish”). While some pressure to publish may incentivise high quality research, too much publication pressure is likely to have detrimental effects on both the scientific enterprise and on individual researchers. Our research question was: What is the level of perceived publication pressure in the four academic institutions in Amsterdam and does the pressure to publish differ between academic ranks and disc...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in Contemporary Educational Psychology 2.48
Idalis Villanueva3
Estimated H-index: 3
(USU: Utah State University),
Marialuisa Di Stefano1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst)
+ 2 AuthorsSheree Benson (USU: Utah State University)
Abstract In academic mentoring research, there is a need to include empirical designs that considers more sociocultural perspectives. The purpose of this exploratory study was to race re-imagine academic mentoring by considering its sociocultural perspectives (i.e., intersectionality, tokenism, and awareness). For this, a qualitative-dominant mixed-methods approach was used to explore the perspectives and responses of twelve womxn graduate students and faculty involved in science and engineering...
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Corey McAuliffe (U of T: University of Toronto), Ross Upshur46
Estimated H-index: 46
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 1 AuthorsErica Di Ruggiero9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of T: University of Toronto)
The ways in which global health students experience trauma/distress while conducting global health fieldwork is understudied. No identifiable literature addresses the risks to students’ mental well-being, although physical wellness checks exist. Importantly, global health practitioners are at greater risk than the general population for moral distress, secondary-traumatic stress disorder, vicarious traumatization, compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, and anxiety. Students face increased risks (e...
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Nadia S. Corral-Frías (Universidad de Sonora), Sheila N. Velardez Soto (Universidad de Sonora)+ 2 AuthorsDavid Watson84
Estimated H-index: 84
(ND: University of Notre Dame)
It is estimated that aproximately 4% of the world’s population is either living with depression, anxiety, or both. The prevalence of these disorders has been consistently increasing. This widespread and increasing prevalence highlights the importance of having well-validated scales to assess symptoms in different languages. The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Clark and Watson Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316–336, 1991) is a commonly used self-report questionnaire that as...
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