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Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation.

Published on Jan 31, 2017in Frontiers in Immunology4.716
· DOI :10.3389/fimmu.2017.00061
P. Kent Langston2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Harvard University),
Munehiko Shibata5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Harvard University),
Tiffany Horng22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Harvard University)
Abstract
Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to a variety of stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate (or polarize) macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation.
  • References (42)
  • Citations (41)
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References42
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The role of nutrient-sensing pathways in regulation of innate immune response is unexplored. Here the authors show that IL-4 activates the amino-acid sensing pathway in macrophages and leads to polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages via the transcription factor liver X receptor.
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Summary Macrophage activation status is intrinsically linked to metabolic remodeling. Macrophages stimulated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) to become alternatively (or, M2) activated increase fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation; these metabolic changes are critical for M2 activation. Enhanced glucose utilization is also characteristic of the M2 metabolic signature. Here, we found that increased glucose utilization is essential for M2 activation. Increased glucose metabolism in IL-4-stimu...
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Supported by the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement 260961, the Wellcome Trust (investigator award 106260/Z/14/Z; a PhD fellowship for clinicians; and a Career Re-Entry Fellowship), the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the US National Institutes of Health (5U420D011174 and 5U54HG006348), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical R...
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