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Importance of updating old cohorts for new findings

Published on May 1, 2017in Occupational and Environmental Medicine3.556
· DOI :10.1136/oemed-2016-103981
Harri Vainio61
Estimated H-index: 61
(Kuniv: Kuwait University),
Elisabete Weiderpass105
Estimated H-index: 105
Abstract
Mustard gas, or sulfur mustard, is a chemical with devastating acute toxic effects. The development, production, acquisition, stockpiling and transfer of all chemical weapons, including mustard gas, were banned by The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997. However, mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during many international political conflicts and wars of the twentieth century. A known, highly toxic, mutagenic carcinogen in animal models and an established carcinogen in humans,1 mustard gas has caused much human suffering, invalidating and even killing people. The acute toxic manifestations of exposure to mustard gas consist of epithelial detachment, necrosis in the respiratory system, skin and eyes and sometimes gastric complications. The long-term health consequences of such exposure include epithelial fibrosis and cancer and have been the subject of long-term follow-up studies, especially among military personnel and inhabitants of war-stricken areas in which chemical weapons were used.2 So, does the study by Mukaida et al 3 bring anything new to the existing knowledge on the consequences of long-term exposure to mustard gas? We are convinced that that answer is yes, and here we will dwell on the reasons why. First of all, the …
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References11
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#1Kenichi Mukaida (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 2
#2Noboruhattori (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 32
Last. Nobuoki Kohno (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 60
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Objectives Mustard gas (MG) has been the most widely used chemical warfare agent in the past century. However, few but conflicting data exist on the effects of MG exposure on long-term mortality. We investigated MG-related mortality in retired workers at a poisonous gas factory. Methods We assessed mortality rates among 2392 male and 1226 female workers, whose vital status could be determined through 31 December 2009, at a poisonous gas factory operating from 1929 to 1945 in Okuno-jima, Japan. T...
5 CitationsSource
#1Kamyar Ghabili (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 17
#2Paul S. AgutterH-Index: 15
Last. Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 31
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Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studie...
81 CitationsSource
#1Mostafa Ghanei (BMSU: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 34
#2Ali Amini Harandi (BMSU: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 17
Mustard gas (HD) was a widely used chemical warfare agent during World War I and more recently in the Iraq–Iran war (1980–1988). To date, dramatically, 45,000 Iranians are suffering from late respiratory complications due to MG exposure. This review covers two decades of researches on latent pulmonary effects of MG. Findings from clinical manifestations, pathologic examinations, laboratory data, lung function tests, and radiological evaluations are reviewed. From this review we are able to provi...
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#1Michio YamakidoH-Index: 41
#2Shinichi IshiokaH-Index: 28
Last. Akihiro MaedaH-Index: 12
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Mustard gas is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on animal and human cells. In this report, 1,632 male Japanese who worked in poison gas factories at some time between the years 1927...
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#1Yukio NishimotoH-Index: 8
#2Michio YamakidoH-Index: 41
Last. Yukutake MH-Index: 4
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: Until the end of the Second World War, a poison gas manufacturing plant was operating on Okunojima, an island in the Seto Inland Sea. Of the gases produced there, mustard gas and Lewisite were found to be associated with various malignant tumors including lung cancer. The mortality rate for lung cancer in workers directly or indirectly involved in the production of poison gas was significantly higher than that of workers not involved in the production there. Lung cancer caused by poison gas wa...
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: A study of the mortality experience of three samples of World War I veterans totaling 7,151 U.S. white males was extended from 1956 through 1965 to learn whether a single exposure to mustard gas with respiratory injury was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in later life. Rosters of men born between 1889 and 1893 [2,718 exposed to mustard gas, 1,855 hospitalized with pneumonia in 1918, and 2,578 with wounds of the extremities (controls)] were traced via the Veterans Administration's...
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#1Akira Yamada (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 2
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#1Wada TH-Index: 1
#2Yamada AH-Index: 1
Last. Tokuoka SH-Index: 1
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1 Citations
#1Akira Yamada (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 2
#2Fumio Hirose (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 8
Last. Teruhiko Nakamura (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 1
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