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Considering ERP difference scores as individual difference measures: Issues with subtraction and alternative approaches

Published on Jan 1, 2017in Psychophysiology 3.38
· DOI :10.1111/psyp.12664
Alexandria Meyer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Matthew D. Lerner18
Estimated H-index: 18
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
+ 2 AuthorsGreg Hajcak64
Estimated H-index: 64
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
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Abstract
There is growing interest in psychophysiological and neural correlates of psychopathology, personality, and other individual differences. Many studies correlate a criterion individual difference variable (e.g., anxiety) with a psychophysiological measurement derived by subtracting scores taken from two within-subject conditions. These subtraction-based difference scores are intended to increase specificity by isolating variability of interest. Using data on the error-related negativity (ERN) and correct response negativity (CRN) in relation to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we highlight several conceptual and practical issues with subtraction-based difference scores and propose alternative approaches based on regression. We show that ERN and CRN are highly correlated, and that the ΔERN (i.e., ERN − CRN) is correlated in opposite directions both with ERN and CRN. Bivariate analyses indicate that GAD is related to ΔERN and ERN, but not CRN. We first show that, by using residualized scores, GAD relates both to a larger ERN and smaller CRN. Moreover, by probing the interaction of ERN and CRN, we show that the relationship between GAD and ERN varies by CRN. These latter findings are not evident when using traditional subtraction-based difference scores. We then completed follow-up analyses that suggested that an increased P300 in anxious individuals gave rise to the apparent anxiety/CRN relationship observed. These findings have important conceptual implications for facilitating the interpretability of results from individual difference studies of psychophysiology.
  • References (51)
  • Citations (45)
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References51
Newest
Robert D. Laird30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UNO: University of New Orleans),
Laura K. LaFleur2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNO: University of New Orleans)
The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers’ and adolescents’ reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother–adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% Afri...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Psychophysiology 3.38
Anna Weinberg26
Estimated H-index: 26
(McGill University),
Alexandria Meyer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
+ 4 AuthorsGreg Hajcak64
Estimated H-index: 64
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
The error-related negativity (ERN) currently appears as a physiological measure in relation to three Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs: Cognitive Control, Sustained Threat, and Reward Learning. We propose a conceptual model in which variance in the ERN reflects individual differences in the degree to which errors are evaluated as threatening. We also discuss evidence for the placement of the ERN in the “Sustained Threat” construct, as well as evidence that the ERN may more specifically ...
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.41
Chad M. Sylvester12
Estimated H-index: 12
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis),
James J. Hudziak54
Estimated H-index: 54
(UVM: University of Vermont)
+ 2 AuthorsJoan L. Luby36
Estimated H-index: 36
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth wit...
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Psychophysiology 3.38
Matthias Hoenen5
Estimated H-index: 5
(HHU: University of Düsseldorf),
Katrin T. Lübke7
Estimated H-index: 7
(HHU: University of Düsseldorf),
Bettina M. Pause25
Estimated H-index: 25
(HHU: University of Düsseldorf)
In accordance with simulation theories of empathy, the somatosensory cortex is involved in the perception of pain of others. Cognitive processes, like perspective taking, can alter empathy-related activity within the somatosensory cortex. The current study investigates whether this modulation is caused by the imagined sensation of pain or by the cognitive load of a perspective-taking task. Applying a within-subject design, participants (N = 30) watched pictures of painful and nonpainful actions,...
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Psychophysiology 3.38
Douglas Jozef Angus5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UNSW: University of New South Wales),
Kevin Kemkes1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
+ 1 AuthorsEddie Harmon-Jones63
Estimated H-index: 63
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
Previous research indicates that the reward positivity (RewP), an electrophysiological correlate of sensitivity and biases towards rewarding stimuli, is modulated by affective and motivational variables. Studies have provided evidence that states and traits associated with negative affect and reduced approach motivation are correlated with smaller RewP amplitudes. However, the possible confound of affective valence and motivational direction was not addressed in these studies. In the present stu...
Published on Aug 1, 2015in Brain Research 2.93
Gert-Jan Munneke1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UvA: University of Amsterdam),
Tanja S. Nap1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael X Cohen52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
Abstract Successful behavior relies on error detection and subsequent remedial adjustment of behavior. Researchers have identified two electrophysiological signatures of error processing: the time-domain error-related negativity (ERN), and the time–frequency domain increased power in the delta/theta frequency bands (~2–8 Hz). The relationship between these two signatures is not entirely clear: on the one hand they occur after the same type of event and with similar latency, but on the other hand...
Published on May 1, 2015in Development and Psychopathology 3.59
Sergey A. Kornilov9
Estimated H-index: 9
(SPbU: Saint Petersburg State University),
James S. Magnuson27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Haskins Laboratories)
+ 2 AuthorsElena L. Grigorenko53
Estimated H-index: 53
Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n ¼ 23) and their typically developing peers (n ¼ 16) using a picture-word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to audito...
Jennifer N. Bress9
Estimated H-index: 9
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Alexandria Meyer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Greg Hajcak64
Estimated H-index: 64
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
The current study, which was a reanalysis of previous data, focused on the error-related negativity (ERN)—an event-related potential (ERP) associated with error monitoring—and the feedback negativity (FN)—an ERP associated with reward processing. Two objectives motivated this study: first, to illustrate the relationship between the ERN and anxious symptoms, and the relationship between the FN and depressive symptoms; second, to explore whether the ERN and the FN relate uniquely to anxiety and de...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Journal of Physiology-paris
James F. Cavanagh8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UNM: University of New Mexico),
Alexander J. Shackman27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Abstract Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC act...
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Journal of Abnormal Psychology 5.52
Alexandria Meyer13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Greg Hajcak64
Estimated H-index: 64
+ 2 AuthorsDaniel N. Klein72
Estimated H-index: 72
Considering that anxiety disorders frequently begin before adulthood and often result in chronic impairment, it is important to characterize the developmental pathways leading to the onset of clinical anxiety. Identifying neural biomarkers that can predict the onset of anxiety in childhood may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of anxiety, as well as inform intervention and prevention strategies. An event-related potential (ERP), the error-related negativity (ERN) has been propos...
Cited By45
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Psychiatry Research-neuroimaging 2.21
Elizabeth S. Stevens2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Lynne Lieberman8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 2 AuthorsStewart A. Shankman (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract Heightened responsivity to unpredictable, and perhaps predictable, threat characterizes some internalizing disorders and may be vulnerability factors for psychopathology as well. However, few studies have directly tested whether individual differences in unpredictable and/or predictable threat responding longitudinally predict symptoms of psychopathology and functional outcomes. Examining functioning is particularly important given that functioning is separable from symptoms of psychopa...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 2.62
Samantha Pegg (Vandy: Vanderbilt University), Paige Ethridge2
Estimated H-index: 2
(McGill University)
+ 3 AuthorsAutumn Kujawa19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Exposure to social stress is a well-established risk factor for the development and recurrence of depression. Reduced neural responsiveness to monetary reward has been associated with greater symptoms following stress exposure. It remains unclear whether reduced reward responsiveness serves as a mediator or moderator of the effects of stress on internalizing symptoms or whether similar patterns emerge with responses to social reward. We addressed this issue by measuring lifetime stress exposure ...
Published in Psychophysiology 3.38
Samantha Pegg (Vandy: Vanderbilt University), Lindsay Dickey (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)+ -3 AuthorsAutumn Kujawa19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Published on Jul 5, 2019in bioRxiv
Alexandra Michelle Muir (BYU: Brigham Young University), Kaylie A. Carbine5
Estimated H-index: 5
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
+ 3 AuthorsMichael J. Larson34
Estimated H-index: 34
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
The impact of individual differences on performance monitoring and psychopathology is a question of active debate. Personality traits associated with psychopathology may be related to poor internal performance monitoring (as measured by the error-related negativity [ERN]) but intact external performance monitoring (as measured by the reward positivity [RewP]), suggesting that there are underlying neural differences between internal and external performance monitoring processes. We tested the rel...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Biological Psychology 2.63
Indy Bernoster1
Estimated H-index: 1
(EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam),
Kristel De Groot2
Estimated H-index: 2
(EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)
+ 2 AuthorsIngmar H. A. Franken49
Estimated H-index: 49
(EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)
Abstract Despite many studies examining a combination of self-report, behavioral, and neurophysiological measures, only few address whether these different levels of measurement indeed reflect one construct. The present study aids in filling this gap by exploring the association between self-report, behavioral, and electrophysiological measures of impulsivity and related constructs such as sensation seeking, reward responsiveness, and ADHD symptoms. Individuals across two large samples (n = 133 ...
Published on Jun 22, 2019in Psychophysiology 3.38
Richard J. Macatee (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago), Katie L. Burkhouse9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 5 AuthorsK. Luan Phan52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Brian J. Albanese9
Estimated H-index: 9
(FSU: Florida State University),
Richard J. Macatee (AU: Auburn University)+ 3 AuthorsNorman B. Schmidt63
Estimated H-index: 63
(FSU: Florida State University)
Abstract Background Existing research suggests inhibitory control deficits may differentiate individuals who think about suicide from those who make a suicide attempt. However, no available research, to our knowledge, has examined whether suicidal behaviors are associated with disruptions in the ability to determine when inhibitory control is needed or the ability to engage inhibition of an inappropriate or maladaptive behavior. The current study utilized event-related potentials to investigate ...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Psychophysiology 3.38
Ashley A. Huggins3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Anna Weinberg26
Estimated H-index: 26
(McGill University)
+ 1 AuthorsStewart A. Shankman24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.41
Alexandria Meyer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(FSU: Florida State University),
Corinne N. Carlton (FSU: Florida State University)+ 1 AuthorsKarl Wissemann (FSU: Florida State University)
Anxiety disorders often begin early in life and there is substantial interest in identifying neural markers that characterize developmental trajectories that result in anxiety. The error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when people make errors on lab-based reaction-time tasks, is increased in anxious children, and can predict the onset of anxiety across development. In light of this, there is an increasing interest in identifying environmental factors that may shape the ERN in children. Prev...
Stephanie M. Gorka16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Lynne Lieberman8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 3 AuthorsStewart A. Shankman24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract Studies suggest that individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) display abnormal neural error-processing, measured via the error-related negativity (ERN). The nature of the error-related abnormalities in AUD is unclear, however, as prior research has yielded discrepant findings. In addition, no study to date has attempted to characterize the dispositional nature of the ERN in AUD and directly test to what extent ERN amplitude reflects a risk factor, disease marker, and/or scar of AUD p...