Toxicity Studies on Chloroform Extract of Solanum trilobatum: Effect on Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats

Published on Mar 1, 2015in International Journal of Cancer Research
· DOI :10.3923/ijcr.2015.109.118
H. Sini1
Estimated H-index: 1
K.S. Devi1
Estimated H-index: 1
K.G. Nevin1
Estimated H-index: 1
  • References (14)
  • Citations (1)
#1Patterson Jw (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 3
#2Lazarow A (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 4
152 CitationsSource
#1H. Sini (UoK: University of Kerala)H-Index: 1
#2K.S. Devi (UoK: University of Kerala)H-Index: 1
A chloroform extract from the anticancer herb Solanum trilobatum (CST) (Nadkarni, 1979) was analyzed and compared with reference antioxidants for its in vitro antioxidative properties such as scavenging of α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, protection to deoxyribose degradation, reducing power, as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of CST by silica gel thin-layer chromatography showed the presence of simple phenols, phenolic a...
29 CitationsSource
Publisher Summary This chapter elaborates the role of nicotinamide quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in protection against toxicity of electrophiles and reactive oxygen intermediates. NQO1 is a broadly distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of quinones, quinone imines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes. Its notable characteristics include: equal efficiency of NADH and NADPH as electron donors; an obligatory two-electron reduction mechanism without semiquin...
74 CitationsSource
#1Hanna SzaeferH-Index: 15
Last. Wanda Baer-DubowskaH-Index: 23
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Abstract Plant phenolics modify the metabolic activation of several carcinogens, including aromatic amines. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of three structurally diversified plant phenolics, protocatechuic acid (PCA), tannic acid (TA) and ellagic acid (EA) on cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes and glutathione S -transferase (GST) activities after oral administration alone or in combination with o -toluidine in rat liver and kidney. Protocatechuic and ellagic acids significantly decre...
23 CitationsSource
#1Yashushi Uda (Utsunomiya University)H-Index: 1
#2Keith R. Price (Norwich Research Park)H-Index: 34
Last. Michael J. C. Rhodes (Norwich Research Park)H-Index: 45
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Abstract Some flavonoids induce phase II enzymes both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the structural requirements for this activity by examining the ability of naturally-occurring flavonoids to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase; EC, in murine Hepa1c1c7 cells. Hydroxylation of the B ring is not essential for induction, since galangin and kaempferol (with 0 and 1 hydroxyl in the B ring, respectively) are better inducers than quercetin ...
99 CitationsSource
#1M. T. Obermeier (BMS: Bristol-Myers Squibb)H-Index: 1
#2R. E. White (BMS: Bristol-Myers Squibb)H-Index: 1
Last. C. S. Yang (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 6
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1. The effects of tangeretin, green tea flavonoids, and other flavonoids on 7-ethoxyre-sorufin-O-deethylase (EROD; 450 1A), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD; P450 2B), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH, P450 2E1), and erythromycin-N-demethylase (ERDM; P450 3A) were examined in induced rat liver microsomes. EROD, PNPH, ERDM, and nifedipine oxidase (NIFO; P450 3A4) were examined in human liver microsomes.2. All flavonoids tested inhibited EROD activity at higher concentrations in liver microsom...
150 CitationsSource
#1B. Stavric (Health and Welfare Canada)H-Index: 5
Abstract The role of dietary factors in the prevention of major chronic diseases, cancer in particular, is under intensive investigation by many laboratories around the world. Evidence from epidemiological studies and tests in laboratory animals suggests that food consumed by the general population contains certain ingredients that may have a role in reduction of the incidence of cancer. It has been observed that a number of regular food components, belonging to different chemical groups, do pos...
162 CitationsSource
#1Hans J. Prochaska (MSK: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)H-Index: 18
#2Christabel L. Fernandes (MSK: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)H-Index: 4
Inducers of Phase II enzymes, already consumed by humans as food additives, medicines or as constituents of vegetables, can prevent experimental carcinogenesis. Since protection is neither carcinogen- nor organ-specific, clinical trials are already underway to establish the efficacy of 'anticarcinogenic enzyme inducers' (i.e. oltipraz). However, efficient and cost-effective assays to establish the dose wherein a putative anticarcinogen can raise Phase II enzyme levels are lacking. We tested the ...
60 CitationsSource
#1Brian F. Coles (NCTR: National Center for Toxicological Research)H-Index: 18
#2Brian Ketterer (NCTR: National Center for Toxicological Research)H-Index: 1
The importance of the covalent binding of electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens to macromolecules, in particular DNA, as a critical event in chemical carcinogenesis was established in the 1960s. This was largely through the work of James and Elizabeth Miller and colleagues.' Since then, the metabolism of many chemical carcinogens has been investigated and the details of their activation to electrophilic metabolites have been established. That glutathione (GSH) can act as an alternative (compe...
390 CitationsSource
#1Paul Talalay (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 73
191 CitationsSource
Cited By1
#1H. Sini (UoK: University of Kerala)H-Index: 1
#2K.S. Devi (UoK: University of Kerala)H-Index: 1
Last. K.G. Nevin (UoK: University of Kerala)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
The aim of this study was to assess the potential of chloroform extract of S. trilobatum (CST) on 7,12-dimethyl benz (a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin carcinogenesis and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) induced solid tumor in mice. CST was obtained by exhaustive extraction with chloroform. Skin carcinogenesis was induced in Swiss albino mice by applying DMBA, while solid tumor was induced by intramuscular injection of EAC cells. For preventing skin carcinogenesis, animals were treated with ...