Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?-A Systematic Review.

Published on Oct 3, 2016in PLOS ONE2.78
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0163477
Jesse Yli-Huumo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Lappeenranta University of Technology),
Deokyoon Ko3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Sogang University)
+ 2 AuthorsKari Smolander20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Aalto University)
Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers.
Figures & Tables
  • References (49)
  • Citations (149)
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Mohammad Shojafar20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Sapienza University of Rome),
Nicola Cordeschi14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Sapienza University of Rome),
Enzo Baccarelli24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Sapienza University of Rome)
Providing real-time cloud services to Vehicular Clients (VCs) must cope with delay and delay-jitter issues. Fog computing is an emerging paradigm that aims at distributing small-size self-powered data centers (e.g., Fog nodes) between remote Clouds and VCs, in order to deliver data-dissemination real-time services to the connected VCs. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper, we propose and test an energy-efficient adaptive resource scheduler for Networked Fog Centers (NetFCs). They ope...
Published on Apr 1, 2016in IEEE Communications Magazine10.36
Ismail Butun9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Bursa Technical University),
Melike Erol-Kantarci22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Clarkson University)
+ 1 AuthorsHoubing Song26
Estimated H-index: 26
(WVU: West Virginia University)
With the advances in IoT, future public safety responders will be well armed with devices that pump data between on-site responders and command centers, carrying useful information about the event scene, the status of a mission, and helping critical decisions to be made in real time. In addition, wearable and on-body sensors will monitor the vital signals and well being of the responders. These connected devices or the so-called IoT surrounding public safety responders generate highly vulnerable...
Published on Nov 3, 2015 in NSS (Network and System Security)
Zhiguo Wan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Singapore Management University),
Robert H. Deng48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Singapore Management University),
David Kuo Chuen Lee6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Singapore Management University)
Electronic contract signing allows two potentially dis-trustful parties to digitally sign an electronic document “simultaneously” across a network. Existing solutions for electronic contract signing either require the involvement of a trusted third party (TTP), or are complex and expensive in communication and computation. In this paper we propose an electronic contract signing protocol between two parties with the following advantages over existing solutions: 1) it is practical and scalable due...
Published on Oct 25, 2015 in VizSEC (Visualization for Computer Security)
Giuseppe Di Battista34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Roma Tre University),
Valentino Di Donato3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Roma Tre University)
+ 3 AuthorsRoberto Tamassia51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Brown University)
Bitcoin is a digital currency whose transactions are stored into a public ledger, called blockchain, that can be viewed as a directed graph with more than 70 million nodes, where each node represents a transaction and each edge represents Bitcoins flowing from one transaction to another one. We describe a system for the visual analysis of how and when a flow of Bitcoins mixes with other flows in the transaction graph. Such a system relies on high-level metaphors for the representation of the gra...
Published on Sep 21, 2015 in IWSEC (International Workshop on Security)
Christopher Mann2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Bonn),
Daniel Loebenberger3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Bonn)
We show how to realize two-factor authentication for a Bitcoin wallet. To do so, we explain how to employ an ECDSA adaption of the two-party signature protocol by MacKenzie and Reiter 2004 in the context of Bitcoin and present a prototypic implementation of a Bitcoin wallet that offers both: two-factor authentication and verification over a separate channel. Since we use a smart phone as the second authentication factor, our solution can be used with hardware already available to most users and ...
Published on Sep 21, 2015 in ESORICS (European Symposium on Research in Computer Security)
Christian Decker7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ETH Zurich),
James Guthrie2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ETH Zurich)
+ 1 AuthorsRoger Wattenhofer69
Estimated H-index: 69
(ETH Zurich)
Bitcoin exchanges are a vital component of the Bitcoin ecosystem. They are a gateway from the classical economy to the cryptocurrency economy, facilitating the exchange between fiat currency and bitcoins. However, exchanges are also single points of failure, operating outside the Bitcoin blockchain, requiring users to entrust them with their funds in order to operate. In this work we present a solution, and a proof-of-concept implementation, that allows exchanges to prove their solvency, without...
Published on Aug 24, 2015 in TRUST (Trust and Trustworthy Computing)
Frederik Armknecht22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UMA: University of Mannheim),
Ghassan O. Karame17
Estimated H-index: 17
+ 2 AuthorsErik Zenner9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Applied Sciences Offenburg)
Ripple is a payment system and a digital currency which evolved completely independently of Bitcoin. Although Ripple holds the second highest market cap after Bitcoin, there are surprisingly no studies which analyze the provisions of Ripple.
Published on Aug 16, 2015 in CRYPTO (International Cryptology Conference)
Marcin Andrychowicz15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Warsaw),
Stefan Dziembowski23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Warsaw)
Motivated by the recent success of Bitcoin we study the question of constructing distributed cryptographic protocols in a fully peer-to-peer scenario under the assumption that the adversary has limited computing power and there is no trusted setup (like PKI, or an unpredictable beacon). We propose a formal model for this scenario and then we construct a broadcast protocol in it. This protocol is secure under the assumption that the honest parties have computing power that is some non-negligible ...
Published on Aug 1, 2015 in BDCloud (International Conference on Big Data and Cloud Computing)
Junichi Kishigami1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MuIT: Muroran Institute of Technology),
Shigeru Fujimura4
Estimated H-index: 4
(NTT: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)
+ 2 AuthorsAkihiko Akutsu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTT: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)
The blockchain-based digital content distribution system was developed. Decentralized and pear-to-pear authentication mechanism can be considered as the ideal rights management mechanism. The blockchain has the potential to realize this ideal content distribution system. This is the successful model of the Superdistribution concept which was announced almost 30 years ago. The proposed system was demonstrated and got a lot of feedback for the future practical system.
Published on Aug 1, 2015
Giancarlo Bigi10
Estimated H-index: 10
Andrea Bracciali11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Stirling)
+ 1 AuthorsEmilio Tuosto18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Leicester)
Decentralised smart contracts represent the next step in the development of protocols that support the interaction of independent players without the presence of a coercing authority. Based on protocols i la BitCoin for digital currencies, smart contracts are believed to be a potentially enabling technology for a wealth of future applications. The validation of such an early developing technology is as necessary as it is complex. In this paper we combine game theory and formal models to tackle t...
Cited By149
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Anup Bihari Gaurav (NIT-B: Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology), Pushpendra Kumar1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NIT-B: Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsRamjeevan Singh Thakur6
Estimated H-index: 6
(NIT-B: Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology)
Kommu Narendra (National Institute of Technology, Puducherry), G. Aghila (National Institute of Technology, Puducherry)
Anton Klarin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ECU: Edith Cowan University)
Abstract Recent advances in science mapping allowed to analyze the entire intellectual structure of blockchain and cryptocurrencies in business-related disciplines to identify 174 academic articles as well as 1,482 practitioner-oriented articles published since the inception of cryptocurrencies in 2008 to highlight key trends of the published outputs. The results demonstrate academic research done by 389 authors in 296 organizations based in 50 countries that only just initiated the conversation...
Andrea Flori3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Polytechnic University of Milan)
Abstract The use of crypto-currencies in financial applications is receiving increasing interest. This paper relies on a Bayesian framework that combines market-neutral information with subjective beliefs to show an application of how Bitcoin can be exploited to build diversified investment strategies. By means of an intuitive procedure based on the Black and Litterman model, I propose to relate portfolio construction with the role of news in generating investors’ subjective beliefs, which are c...
Qi Liu (Hunan University of Technology), Xiao Zou (Hunan University of Technology)
In recent years, the status of cooperation and innovation has become increasingly important. Research on the behavior of production, education, and research organizations has attracted widespread attention. Blockchain technology is considered as another subversive technology following cloud computing, wireless sensor networks, and big data. It is highly concerned by governments, financial institutions, and technology companies. Blockchain technology is essentially a technical solution that colle...
Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi46
Estimated H-index: 46
Laurie Hughes1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Swansea University)
+ -2 AuthorsViswanadh Akella
Abstract The blockchain has received significant attention from technology focussed researchers, highlighting its perceived impact and emerging disruption potential, but has been slow to engender any significant momentum within the Information Systems (IS) and Information Management (IM) literature. This study approaches the subject through an IS/IM lens developing the key themes from the blockchain based research via a comprehensive review. This analysis of the body of literature highlights tha...
Published on Mar 27, 2019in BMC Medicine8.29
Tim K. Mackey21
Estimated H-index: 21
Tsung-Ting Kuo12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
+ 6 AuthorsMaria Palombini1
Estimated H-index: 1
Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin – the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve p...
Published on 2019in Computational Social Networks
Quan-Lin Li (Beijing University of Technology), Jing-Yu Ma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yanshan University)
+ 2 AuthorsHai-Bo Yu (Beijing University of Technology)
In this paper, we develop a more general framework of block-structured Markov processes in the queueing study of blockchain systems, which can provide analysis both for the stationary performance measures and for the sojourn time of any transaction or block. In addition, an original aim of this paper is to generalize the two-stage batch-service queueing model studied in Li et al. (Blockchain queue theory. In: International conference on computational social networks. Springer: New York; 2018. p....
View next paperBitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital Currencies