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A New Class of Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Identified by Crystallographic Fragment Screening of the Catalytic Core Domain.

Published on Nov 4, 2016in Journal of Biological Chemistry4.106
· DOI :10.1074/jbc.M116.753384
D. Patel10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine),
Janet Antwi3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 12 AuthorsEddy Arnold41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine)
Abstract
Abstract HIV-1 integrase (IN) is essential for virus replication and represents an important multifunctional therapeutic target. Recently discovered quinoline-based allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) potently impair HIV-1 replication and are currently in clinical trials. ALLINIs exhibit a multimodal mechanism of action by inducing aberrant IN multimerization during virion morphogenesis and by competing with IN for binding to its cognate cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 during early steps of HIV-1 infection. However, quinoline-based ALLINIs impose a low genetic barrier for the evolution of resistant phenotypes, which highlights a need for discovery of second-generation inhibitors. Using crystallographic screening of a library of 971 fragments against the HIV-1 IN catalytic core domain (CCD) followed by a fragment expansion approach, we have identified thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives that bind at the CCD-CCD dimer interface at the principal lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding pocket. The most active derivative (5) inhibited LEDGF/p75-dependent HIV-1 IN activity in vitro with an IC50 of 72 μm and impaired HIV-1 infection of T cells at an EC50 of 36 μm. The identified lead compound, with a relatively small molecular weight (221 Da), provides an optimal building block for developing a new class of inhibitors. Furthermore, although structurally distinct thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives target a similar pocket at the IN dimer interface as the quinoline-based ALLINIs, the lead compound, 5, inhibited IN mutants that confer resistance to quinoline-based compounds. Collectively, our findings provide a plausible path for structure-based development of second-generation ALLINIs.
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References63
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Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) have recently emerged as a promising class of antiretroviral agents and are currently in clinical trials. In infected cells, ALLINIs potently inhibit viral replication by impairing virus particle maturation but surprisingly exhibit a reduced EC50 for inhibiting HIV-1 integration in target cells. To better understand the reduced antiviral activity of ALLINIs during the early stage of HIV-1 replication, we investigated the competitive interplay betwe...
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Integration is vital to retroviral replication and influences the establishment of the latent HIV reservoir. HIV-1 integration favors active genes, which is in part determined by the interaction between integrase and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75. Because gene targeting remains significantly enriched, relative to random in LEDGF/p75 deficient cells, other host factors likely contribute to gene-tropic integration. Nucleoporins 153 and 358, which bind HIV-1 capsid, play compara...
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HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important therapeutic target as its function is essential for the viral lifecycle. The discovery of multifunctional allosteric IN inhibitors or ALLINIs, which potently impair viral replication by promoting aberrant, higher order IN multimerization as well as inhibit IN interactions with its cellular cofactor, LEDGF/p75, has opened new venues to exploit IN multimerization as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, the recent discovery of multimerization selective IN inhibito...
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Open image in new window HIV integration. A tetramer of HIV integrase (B) assembles on viral DNA (A) ends and mediates its integration into host cell chromatin. Cellular protein LEDGF/p75 (C) binds IN tetramer in the nucleoprotein complex and navigates HIV-1 integration in active genes
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Background: Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are an important new class of anti-HIV-1 agents. ALLINIs bind at the IN catalytic core domain (CCD) dimer interface occupying the principal binding pocket of its cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75. Consequently, ALLINIs inhibit HIV-1 IN interaction with LEDGF/p75 as well as promote aberrant IN multimerization. Selection of viral strains emerging under the inhibitor pressure has revealed mutations at the IN dimer interface near the inhibit...
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