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Beyond Trade The Expanding Scope of the Nontrade Agenda in Trade Agreements

Published on Apr 1, 2018in Journal of Conflict Resolution
· DOI :10.1177/0022002716662687
Karolina Milewicz7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Oxford),
James Hollway7
Estimated H-index: 7
(HEI: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies)
+ 1 AuthorsDuncan Snidal31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Oxford)
Sources
Abstract
Increased complexity and density of transnational problems create unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. “Issue linkage” is one institutional arrangem...
  • References (29)
  • Citations (31)
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References29
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#1Mark S. Manger (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 9
#2Mark Pickup (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 12
The proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and the wave of democratization are among the most significant developments in international relations during the past three decades. The correlation between these is well noted. The causal link between these phenomena, however, remains unclear. On one hand, democracies have been found to be more likely to join PTAs. On the other hand, trade agreements should foster democratization because they undermine the ability of governments to dist...
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#1James Hollway (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 7
#2Johan Koskinen (University of Manchester)H-Index: 16
Abstract This paper explores how bilateral and multilateral clustering are embedded in a multilevel system of interdependent networks. We argue that in complex systems in which bilateral and multilateral relations are themselves interrelated, such as global fisheries governance, embeddedness cannot be reduced to unipartite or bipartite clustering but implicates multilevel closure. We elaborate expectations for ties’ multilevel embeddedness based on network theory and substantive considerations a...
29 CitationsSource
#1James HollwayH-Index: 7
#2Johan Koskinen (University of Manchester)H-Index: 16
Actors often face challenges demanding bilateral or multilateral cooperation, each with quite different implications. Analytically separating these levels of activity raises the question whether they are driven by similar or different factors. We argue that to answer such questions, one should treat them as interlocking unipartite and bipartite networks, respectively, in a multilevel network. Here we employ multilevel ERGMs to model how bilateral and multilateral fisheries treaties between state...
8 CitationsSource
Who supports multilateral treaties and who does not? We offer a systematic account of treaty ratification patterns paying particular attention to different states' roles in international legal cooperation in relation to the United States' ratification behavior. States' ability to influence the terms of treaties and their acceptance increases their incentives for treaty ratification. Multilateral powers—states that are powerful and independent from the United States—support multilateral legal...
5 CitationsSource
#1Evgeny PostnikovH-Index: 5
7 CitationsSource
#1Brandon J Kinne (UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)H-Index: 8
Diplomatic recognition is an essential tool of statecraft but remains largely unanalyzed by political scientists. Two recent trends in diplomatic practice raise notable puzzles: (i) use of diplomatic ties to signal (dis)approval of a regime or its policies, based largely on cues from diplomatic partners, and (ii) reliance on diplomatic missions as a means of securing prestige in the international system. I argue that both trends are the result of network influences. States face resource constrai...
37 CitationsSource
#1Brandon J Kinne (UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)H-Index: 8
Cooperation helps states realize mutual gains, but mistrust and disagreements over institutional design inhibit cooperation. This article develops a network explanation for how states achieve cooperation in the face of persistent coordination and collaboration problems. The analysis focuses on bilateral cooperation agreements, a vast body of treaties spanning multiple issue areas. Bilateral agreements constitute an evolving network of cooperative ties. This network defines the strategic environm...
51 CitationsSource
#1Tom A. B. Snijders (University of Oxford)H-Index: 65
#2Alessandro Lomi (USI: University of Lugano)H-Index: 24
Last. Vanina Torlo (University of Greenwich)H-Index: 4
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We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency. The empirical value of the model is demonstrated by examining how employment preferences co-evolve with friendship and advice relations...
135 CitationsSource
Previous research suggests that most treaties are ineffective in ensuring countries’ compliance with human rights standards. It has been argued, however, that preferential trade agreements (PTAs) including ‘hard’ human rights standards can withhold economic benefits and, thus, can have a real potential to substantially reduce human rights violations. The following article questions this as existent work on the effects of PTAs on human rights standards neglects a selection process underlying the ...
31 CitationsSource
#1Vinod K. Aggarwal (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 19
Abstract This article examines the driving factors that account for patterns of linkages to broader economic, labor, environmental, and security issues in U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Rather than only emphasizing trade benefits or security considerations as in much recent work on FTAs, this analysis provides a richer empirical picture by focusing on the full universe of U.S. FTAs. It conceptually differentiates among different issues that might be linked to FTAs and categorizes different p...
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Cited By31
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#1Dominique Blümer (German Development Institute)H-Index: 2
#2Jean-Frédéric Morin (Laval University)H-Index: 14
Last. Axel Berger (German Development Institute)H-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACTThe increasing uptake of environmental provisions in preferential trade agreements (PTAs) is well documented, but little is known about why countries prefer certain types of provisions over...
1 CitationsSource
#1Yi Yi Mon (Burmese Ministry of Commerce)H-Index: 1
#2Makoto Kakinaka (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 6
Abstract This study addresses the trade-inequality relationship by investigating how participation in RTAs is associated with the within-country income inequality based on panel data from 125 countries between 1980 and 2015. Specifically, we evaluate the roles of bilateral and plurilateral RTAs in relating to income inequality in developing and developed countries and their possible differences. The results show that bilateral RTAs reduce income inequality in developing countries; however, there...
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#1Nyi Nyi Htwe (Hiroshima University)
#2Seunghoo Lim (International University of Japan)H-Index: 6
Last. Makoto Kakinaka (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 6
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Abstract Regional trade agreements (RTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are expected to promote trade and investment relationships. One critical feature of such agreements is the network, so the multiplex coevolution of RTAs and BITs should be captured by the dynamics of their two networks. Although many studies have examined the roles of RTAs and BITs, most studies do not account for crucial network properties. This study explores how RTAs and BITs coevolve by applying a stochastic a...
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#1Clara Brandi (German Development Institute)H-Index: 9
#2Jakob Schwab (German Development Institute)H-Index: 1
Last. Jean-Frédéric Morin (Laval University)H-Index: 14
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Abstract Environmental provisions in preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are increasing in terms of their number and variety. The economic effects of these environmental provisions remain largely unclear. It is, therefore, necessary to determine whether the trend to incorporate environmental provisions in PTAs counteracts the goal to spur economic development through trade via these PTAs. This is the first article in which the trade effects of environmental provisions in PTAs are thoroughly inv...
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#1Evgeny Postnikov (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 5
#2Ida Bastiaens (Fordham University)H-Index: 5
North–South preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have proliferated rapidly in the past decades. Despite a common focus on trade liberalisation, these preferential trade agreements differ greatly in...
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#1James Hollway (HEI: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies)H-Index: 1
#2Jean-Frédéric Morin (Laval University)H-Index: 14
Last. Joost Pauwelyn (HEI: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies)H-Index: 24
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When do parties introduce novel clauses to a system of contracts or treaties? While important research has investigated how clauses diffuse once introduced, few empirical studies address their initial introduction. Drawing on network theory, this paper argues that novel clauses are introduced when agreements are concluded in certain structures of earlier agreements and the clauses they include. This paper demonstrates this argument using the example of 282 different environmental clauses introdu...
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#1Claire Peacock (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 1
#2Karolina Milewicz (University of Oxford)H-Index: 7
Last. Duncan Snidal (University of Oxford)H-Index: 31
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The prolific literature on the relationship between the trade and environmental regimes suffers from three shortcomings. First, it myopically focuses on multilateral institutions, while the vast majority of trade and environmental agreements are bilateral. Second, when studies consider preferential trade agreements’ (PTAs) environmental provisions, they are often limited to USA and EU agreements. Third, it examines how the trade and environmental regimes negatively affect each other, leaving asi...
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#1Annie Young Song (HKU: University of Hong Kong)
AbstractIn trade negotiations, developed countries have been frontrunners in advocating environmental protection whereas developing countries were reluctant to link environmental protection to thei...
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