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Beyond Trade: The Expanding Scope of the Nontrade Agenda in Trade Agreements

Published on Apr 1, 2018in Journal of Conflict Resolution2.47
· DOI :10.1177/0022002716662687
Karolina Milewicz6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Oxford),
James Hollway6
Estimated H-index: 6
(HEI: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies)
+ 1 AuthorsDuncan Snidal27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Oxford)
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Abstract
Increased complexity and density of transnational problems create unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. “Issue linkage” is one institutional arrangement through which states address these changing circumstances. In this article, we examine the widening scope of the nontrade agenda in preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Nontrade issues (NTIs) such as human rights, democracy, environment, corruption, and labor standards are increasingly linked to PTAs. This issue linkage has important implications for understanding changing patterns of international trade, including the shift to PTAs and the rise of NTIs. We show that (1) states’ choices to commit to bilateral or plurilateral versions of traditional PTAs and to PTAs with NTIs are highly interdependent, (2) states increasingly incorporate NTIs into PTAs, as the associated costs of policy change are lowered through earlier agreements, and (3) network pressures favor the increasing adoption of bilateral and esp...
  • References (28)
  • Citations (16)
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References28
Newest
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Journal of Conflict Resolution2.47
Mark S. Manger7
Estimated H-index: 7
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Mark Pickup11
Estimated H-index: 11
(SFU: Simon Fraser University)
The proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and the wave of democratization are among the most significant developments in international relations during the past three decades. The correlation between these is well noted. The causal link between these phenomena, however, remains unclear. On one hand, democracies have been found to be more likely to join PTAs. On the other hand, trade agreements should foster democratization because they undermine the ability of governments to dist...
Published on Jan 1, 2016
James Hollway6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Johan Koskinen14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Manchester)
Actors often face challenges demanding bilateral or multilateral cooperation, each with quite different implications. Analytically separating these levels of activity raises the question whether they are driven by similar or different factors. We argue that to answer such questions, one should treat them as interlocking unipartite and bipartite networks, respectively, in a multilevel network. Here we employ multilevel ERGMs to model how bilateral and multilateral fisheries treaties between state...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Social Networks2.95
James Hollway6
Estimated H-index: 6
(ETH Zurich),
Johan Koskinen14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Manchester)
Abstract This paper explores how bilateral and multilateral clustering are embedded in a multilevel system of interdependent networks. We argue that in complex systems in which bilateral and multilateral relations are themselves interrelated, such as global fisheries governance, embeddedness cannot be reduced to unipartite or bipartite clustering but implicates multilevel closure. We elaborate expectations for ties’ multilevel embeddedness based on network theory and substantive considerations a...
Published on Jun 1, 2014in International Studies Quarterly2.17
Brandon J Kinne8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)
Diplomatic recognition is an essential tool of statecraft but remains largely unanalyzed by political scientists. Two recent trends in diplomatic practice raise notable puzzles: (i) use of diplomatic ties to signal (dis)approval of a regime or its policies, based largely on cues from diplomatic partners, and (ii) reliance on diplomatic missions as a means of securing prestige in the international system. I argue that both trends are the result of network influences. States face resource constrai...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in American Political Science Review3.90
Brandon J Kinne8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Review of International Organizations1.76
Gabriele Spilker1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Harvard University),
Tobias Böhmelt17
Estimated H-index: 17
Previous research suggests that most treaties are ineffective in ensuring countries’ compliance with human rights standards. It has been argued, however, that preferential trade agreements (PTAs) including ‘hard’ human rights standards can withhold economic benefits and, thus, can have a real potential to substantially reduce human rights violations. The following article questions this as existent work on the effects of PTAs on human rights standards neglects a selection process underlying the ...
Published on May 1, 2013in Social Networks2.95
Tom A. B. Snijders59
Estimated H-index: 59
(University of Oxford),
Alessandro Lomi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(USI: University of Lugano),
Vanina Torlo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Greenwich)
We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency. The empirical value of the model is demonstrated by examining how employment preferences co-evolve with friendship and advice relations...
Published on Jan 1, 2013in International Negotiation
Vinod K. Aggarwal18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of California, Berkeley)
Abstract This article examines the driving factors that account for patterns of linkages to broader economic, labor, environmental, and security issues in U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Rather than only emphasizing trade benefits or security considerations as in much recent work on FTAs, this analysis provides a richer empirical picture by focusing on the full universe of U.S. FTAs. It conceptually differentiates among different issues that might be linked to FTAs and categorizes different p...
Published on Jan 1, 2013
David Vogel35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UC: University of California)
This chapter explores the linkages between international trade rules, national security, and various dimensions of human security, which includes the environment, labor, and human rights. It shows how and why such linkages emerged, describes who initiated and opposed them, and explains how they have affected the membership, terms, scope, and interpretations of global trade agreements. In contrast to several other essays in this volume, this chapter focuses not on regional or bilateral trade agre...
Cited By16
Newest
Published on Feb 27, 2019in Journal of Conflict Resolution2.47
Yoram Z. Haftel9
Estimated H-index: 9
(HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem),
Stephanie C. Hofmann7
Estimated H-index: 7
(HEI: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies)
The proliferation and scope expansion of regional organizations (ROs) is one of the most prominent features in contemporary international politics. In particular, many regional economic organizations (REOs) have expanded into the security realm. This trend has often resulted in an overlap with regional security organizations (RSOs) already in place. This study sheds light on this phenomenon by identifying the conditions under which REOs trespass into the security policy domain despite the fact t...
Published on Sep 21, 2018in Journal of European Public Policy3.46
Katharina L. Meissner4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Vienna),
Lachlan McKenzie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Melbourne)
ABSTRACTIncreasingly, trade agendas are expanding to include non-commercial objectives such as the promotion of fundamental political and human rights. Although the European Parliament (EP) positions itself as an advocate of such objectives in the conclusion of European Union (EU) trade agreements, it rarely insists on them in negotiations. Yet, in the negotiations with Canada, the EP successfully took a tough stance on a human rights conditionality clause. Why did the EP invest political resour...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Social Networks2.95
Nyi Nyi Htwe (Hiroshima University), Seunghoo Lim4
Estimated H-index: 4
(International University of Japan),
Makoto Kakinaka3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Hiroshima University)
Abstract Regional trade agreements (RTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are expected to promote trade and investment relationships. One critical feature of such agreements is the network, so the multiplex coevolution of RTAs and BITs should be captured by the dynamics of their two networks. Although many studies have examined the roles of RTAs and BITs, most studies do not account for crucial network properties. This study explores how RTAs and BITs coevolve by applying a stochastic a...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Ecological Economics4.28
Dennis Kolcava (ETH Zurich), Quynh Nguyen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Princeton University),
Thomas Bernauer31
Estimated H-index: 31
(ETH Zurich)
Abstract Does trade liberalization lead to the outsourcing of pollution from industrialized countries to developing countries? According to the pollution-haven hypothesis, international trade is a key channel through which richer countries can geographically dissociate consumption from production of goods. We examine whether and how trade liberalization via preferential trade agreements (PTAs) facilitates the shifting of consumption-based environmental burdens from developed countries (via impor...
Published on Aug 27, 2019in International Studies Quarterly2.17
Claire Peacock (SFU: Simon Fraser University), Karolina Milewicz6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Oxford),
Duncan Snidal27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Oxford)
Published on 2019in Organizational Research Methods6.55
Viviana Amati2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ETH Zurich),
Alessandro Lomi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Exeter)
+ 1 AuthorsFrancesca Pallotti6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Greenwich)
We present a dynamic multilevel framework for analyzing the mutual dependence of change in interorganizational networks and internal organizational structure. Change occurring at the former (intero...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Sustainability2.59
The nature of interdependence between states encourages them to establish cooperation in different fields, leading to multiple relations. The policy alignments of states on trade and political relations can be regarded as the most critical agenda in a globalized world. Accounting for the linkages between economic and political issues, this study focuses on the two relational ties, (i) free trade agreements (FTAs) as economic cooperation and (ii) political alliances (PAs) as political cooperation...
Published on May 15, 2019in The World Economy1.09
Jean-Frédéric Morin12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Laval University),
Dominique Blümer (ETH Zurich)+ 1 AuthorsAxel Berger6
Estimated H-index: 6
(German Development Institute)
Published on May 1, 2019in Review of International Organizations1.76
Ida Bastiaens3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Evgeny Postnikov3
Estimated H-index: 3
Free trade generates macroeconomic gains but also creates winners and losers. Historically, to reconcile this tension, governments compensated globalization losers with social spending in exchange for support for free trade, known as the embedded liberalism compromise. In the neoliberal era, what other policies can governments pursue to strengthen support for globalization? We assess the effect of social standards in preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on individual preferences for free trade. ...