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Materials Selection for Use in Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid

Published on Jan 1, 2017in Corrosion1.86
· DOI :10.5006/2193
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
,
Paul Manning1
Estimated H-index: 1
Cite
Abstract
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an important mineral acid with many uses, including the pickling of steel, acid treatment of oil wells, and chemical cleaning and processing. This acid is extremely corrosive and its aggressiveness can change drastically depending on its concentration, the temperature, and contamination by oxidizing impurities. One of the most commonly encountered oxidizing impurities is the ferric ion. In general, stainless steels cannot tolerate aggressive HCl solutions, hence the need to use corrosion resistant nickel-based alloys. A part of this study focused on the role of alloying elements on the corrosion performance of commercial nickel-based alloys UNS N10276, UNS N06022, UNS N06200, UNS N07022, UNS N10362, UNS N10675, UNS N06059, and UNS N06625, in HCl solutions, with and without the presence of oxidizing impurities (ferric ions). Aggressive HCl solutions can also be used to simulate the critical crevice solution. Therefore, another aspect of this research is to investigate the role of...
  • References (17)
  • Citations (5)
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References17
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Corrosion1.86
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Xiangrong Zhang4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
The effect of Cu on the localized corrosion of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys has been investigated in hot saline solutions by comparing the behavior of N06059 and N06200 alloys, using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. No measurable effect of copper on anodic film growth kinetics and passive film properties was detected and the breakdown and repassivation potentials of the alloys were very similar. Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrosco...
Published on Jul 1, 2014in Corrosion1.86
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
The effects of Cr, Mo, and W on the crevice corrosion of a number of commercial Ni-Cr-Mo(W) alloys in 1.0 mol/L sodium chloride (NaCl) were studied using the potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiodynamic technique to measure film breakdown and repassivation potentials as well as protection temperatures. As expected, Cr is the key element determining resistance to crevice initiation, but a substantial Mo alloy content is required to achieve maximum film stability, especially at temperatures >60°C...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Electrochimica Acta5.38
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract The depletion of Cr and Mo in the passive films grown on commercial Ni–Cr–Mo(W) alloys in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions has been studied potentiodynamically and by X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy. Depletion in these two key alloying elements occurs at lower potentials than expected on all the alloys studied. It has been shown that the key feature leading to this behavior is the buffering of surface pH to >8.6, when the surface deposition (or retention) of insoluble protecti...
Published on Jun 1, 2013in Electrochimica Acta5.38
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
S. Ramamurthy1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsD.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract Electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies) were used to characterize the influence of potential on the properties of the oxide film formed on the Hybrid BC-1 (a Ni–Cr–Mo) alloy in chloride solutions containing bicarbonate. In the passive region the film possesses the expected bilayer structure with a Cr(III)-dominated barrier layer containing mixed oxidation states of Mo and an outer dominantly-hydroxide layer. At more positive poten...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Corrosion Science6.36
Pellumb Jakupi12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
J.J. Noël14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract Crevice corrosion of alloy-22 was studied galvanostatically (10–200 μA) at 120 °C in 5 M NaCl. Corrosion damage was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy to obtain penetration profiles. Three-dimensional images demonstrate that damage morphologies varied with applied current. At low applied currents (⩽70 μA), propagation predominantly leads to penetration into the alloy, whereas at higher applied currents (>70 μA) corrosion damage spreads across the alloy. Limited penetration d...
Published on May 1, 2011in Corrosion Science6.36
Pellumb Jakupi12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
Fengping Wang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(USTB: University of Science and Technology Beijing)
+ 1 AuthorsD.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract Surface analytical techniques were applied to characterize corrosion products formed during the crevice corrosion of the Ni–Cr–Mo(W) Alloy-22 in 5 mol/L NaCl at 120 °C. Micro-Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of polymeric molybdates within the crevice corroded region where intergranular corrosion dominated. The location and chemical speciation of the Mo and W species formed was investigated by Raman mapping. Crevice corrosion was found to propagate preferentially across the ...
Published on Apr 1, 2011in Corrosion Science6.36
M.G. Faichuk1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
S. Ramamurthy6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
W.M. Lau2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Electrochemical and surface properties of passive films formed on Alloy 600 in a thiosulphate solution were studied. Oxide films formed at various passive potentials contained a bilayer oxide, whose composition changed as a function of the applied potential resulting in a change in the impedance behaviour. Destabilisation of the oxide film at potentials within the passive region was observed, which was due to the breakdown of the oxide film and coincided with the loss of Cr within the passive fi...
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Electrochemical and Solid State Letters
Pellumb Jakupi12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
J.J. Noël14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
D.W. Shoesmith27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Alloy 22 electrodes crevice corroded under constant current conditions in 5 M NaCl at 120°C accumulated damage predominantly in the form of intergranular corrosion. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to determine the relationship between the location of damage and the crystallographic features of the grains and grain boundaries. The alloy possessed an exceptionally high number of "special" (Σ3) grain boundaries, and an intergranular attack was observed on random grain boundaries not exhib...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Journal of The Electrochemical Society3.12
Xi Shan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Case Western Reserve University),
Joe H. Payer18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Case Western Reserve University)
The crevice corrosion performance of Alloy 22 was tested under potentiostatic polarization more positive than the repassivation potential in 4 M NaCl solution at 100°C. Under this aggressive condition, crevice corrosion initiated under the crevice contacts and four stages of corrosion behavior were observed: initiation, propagation, stifling (corrosion slowed), and arrest (corrosion stopped). During the exposure, dark green deposits were found on the uncorroded metal surface around the crevice c...
Published on Nov 1, 2008in Corrosion1.86
A.K. Mishra10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
G. S. Frankel44
Estimated H-index: 44
Abstract The resistance of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) to crevice corrosion in aggressive environments was studied using various modifications of the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical (THE) technique. ...
Cited By5
Newest
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Alloys and Compounds4.17
L.O. Osoba (University of Lagos), A.M. Oladoye (University of Lagos), V.E. Ogbonna (University of Lagos)
Abstract Corrosion susceptibility of Haynes 282 (HY282) and Inconel 718 (IN718) superalloys in hydrochloric acid (HCl) at ambient temperature was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. In the gravimetric study, corrosion rate of the superalloys in 0.5 M, 0.75 M, and 1 M HCl for 72 days was evaluated using weight loss method. The concentration of metallic ions in the 1 M electrolyte after the immersion test was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and surface mor...
Published on 2019in Corrosion Science6.36
Jeffrey D. Henderson5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
Antoine Seyeux21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PSL Research University)
+ 4 AuthorsPhilippe Marcus8
Estimated H-index: 8
(PSL Research University)
Abstract This paper presents insight into the structure and transport mechanisms involved in the surface oxidation of Hastelloy BC-1, gained by means of in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native, air-formed oxide, comprising Cr-rich (inner) and Mo-rich (outer) layers, was found to be on the order of 1-2 nm thick. Oxide thickness did not change when the temperature was increased to 300 °C in oxygen atmosphere but increased to ˜ 10 nm a...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science8.42
K. Lutton Cwalina1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UVA: University of Virginia),
C.R. Demarest1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UVA: University of Virginia)
+ 1 AuthorsJohn R. Scully32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UVA: University of Virginia)
Abstract Minor alloying additions such as molybdenum (Mo) have major effects on the localized corrosion resistance of corrosion resistant alloys containing chromium. However, progress in alloy development is mostly based upon empirical observations, where any mechanistic insights are largely relegated to the latter stages of localized corrosion (i.e., stabilization and propagation) that are more readily accessible experimentally. For instance, it is well understood that Mo and tungsten (W) affec...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Corrosion Science6.36
Jeffrey D. Henderson5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
Xuejie Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PSL Research University)
+ 2 AuthorsK. Ogle8
Estimated H-index: 8
(PSL Research University)
Abstract The role of alloyed Mo during transpassive dissolution of four commercially available Ni-based alloys in neutral chloride solution was investigated by atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry. Time-resolved dissolution rates of Ni, Cr, Mo, and Fe were obtained as a function of applied potential. Mo enrichment occurred at the transpassive potentials and redissolved when the potential returned to the passive domain. These results suggest a mechanism of Mo enrichment and release that could ...
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Electrochimica Acta5.38
Jeffrey D. Henderson5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
N. Ebrahimi8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
+ 3 AuthorsJ.J. Noël14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract Coupling of metal oxidation in crevice corrosion to both O 2 reduction on surfaces external to the crevice and H + reduction occurring within the crevice, was studied using a galvanostatic crevice corrosion technique in conjunction with weight loss analyses. Results suggest internal H + reduction is a significant contributor to the crevice corrosion of the studied alloys in 5 M NaCl at 120 °C. Repeat experiments suggest damage can be as much as doubled by H + reduction. This process, ho...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Acta Metallurgica Sinica (english Letters)1.83
Ajit Mishra1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Haynes International)
Nickel alloys containing optimum amounts of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) are widely used in the chemical processing industries due to their tolerance to both oxidizing and reducing conditions. Unlike stainless steel (SS), Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys exhibit remarkably high uniform corrosion resistance in major concentrated acids, like hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). A higher uniform corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, compared to other alloys, in concentrat...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Acta Metallurgica Sinica (english Letters)1.83
Ajit Mishra1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Haynes International)
Alloys containing chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo), as the major alloying elements, are widely used in various industries where the material experiences corrosive environments. Chromium (Cr), when added in an optimum amount, forms a Cr2O3 passive film which protects the underlying metal in aggressive solutions. Molybdenum (Mo) forms its oxides in the low pH solutions, thus, enhances the uniform corrosion resistance of an alloy in reducing acids and assists in inhibition to localized corrosion. ...