IgG4-related disease causing facial nerve and optic nerve palsies: Case report and literature review

Published on Nov 1, 2016in American Journal of Otolaryngology0.932
· DOI :10.1016/j.amjoto.2016.08.005
Cameron C. Wick6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Joseph Zachariah1
Estimated H-index: 1
(St Mary's Hospital)
+ 5 AuthorsCliff A. Megerian29
Estimated H-index: 29
Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is increasingly being recognized as an entity effecting the head and neck region. Although most commonly seen with salivary gland or paranasal sinus involvement, IgG4-RD may also involve the temporal bone and skull base. We report a rare care of a 61-year-old female with IgG4-RD presenting as synchronous lesions of the middle ear and middle cranial fossa with polyneuropathy of cranial nerves II, VI, and VII. Initial histopathological evaluation of her resected ear mass suggested a benign inflammatory process but no specific diagnosis. Her symptoms progressed over 10 months prompting re-evaluation of the specimen and consideration of the IgG4-RD diagnosis. Key pathologic features included prominent lymphoplasmacytic population, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and IgG4 specific staining. The patient was treated with high-dose intravenous and oral steroids but was transitioned to azathioprine secondary to steroid-induced myopathy. Radiographic studies before and after treatment reveal marked improvement of the intracranial and extracranial disease. Correspondingly, her cranial neuropathies resolved. A high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary to diagnosis IgG4-RD. The diagnosis can be supported by elevated serum IgG, elevated IgG index, and pathognomonic histopathological findings. Primary treatment is with corticosteroids. However, immunotherapy using azathioprine or rituximab can be utilized in recurrent disease or patients with steroid intolerance.
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