Assessing reference evapotranspiration estimation from reanalysis weather products. An application to the Iberian Peninsula

Published on Apr 1, 2017in International Journal of Climatology 3.10
· DOI :10.1002/joc.4852
Diogo S. Martins6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia),
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia)
+ 3 AuthorsLuis S. Pereira50
Estimated H-index: 50
(University of Lisbon)
Abstract
Computing crop reference evapotranspiration (ETo) with the FAO Penman–Monteith method (PM-ETo) requires maximum and minimum air temperature, shortwave radiation, relative air humidity and wind speed. These data are often not available, thus requiring alternative computation procedures. Although some proposed approximations may provide ETo values with small estimation errors, the physics of the ET processes may then not be well described. The use of reanalysis data, which is common in climate studies, represents an alternative to observation data for the weather variables referred above, when these are not available. This study focuses on the use of the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) blended reanalysis products with gridded data sets for the computation of PM-ETo in the Iberian Peninsula. A monthly time step was adopted. The PM-ETo time series computed with the blended reanalysis data sets were compared with those obtained using observations for 130 weather stations in the Iberian Peninsula. Results show that the PM-ETo computed with blended reanalysis compares well with the series computed from observation data (average root mean square error, RMSE = 0.49 mm day−1). The weather variables derived from reanalysis were also compared with observation data. Results supported the quality of ETo computations because, overall, there was a good match between solar radiation (average RMSE = 1.76 MJm−2 day−1) and maximum temperature (average RMSE = 1.48 °C) derived from reanalysis and in situ observations. By contrast, the wind speed from reanalysis highly overestimated observations and this is likely a reason for the slight overestimation of ETo computed from reanalysis (percentage bias, PBIAS>20% in 89% of cases). In addition, the reanalysis products are apparently influenced by modelled warming, which contributes to overestimation of the minimum temperature and, to a lesser extent, of the relative humidity. The spatial pattern of accuracy indicators reveals that poorer results correspond to the southern and south-eastern coastal areas of Iberia, where climate is semi-arid. The compatibility of the PM-ETo computed with monthly inputs and of the daily ETo cumulated to the month using the PM-ETo equation was confirmed, thus allowing to extend conclusions of this study to daily computations. Alternative reanalysis products were also assessed. Tests for ERA-Interim reanalysis products revealed overestimation of ETo and those for NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis II have shown large underestimation. Results suggest that the blended reanalysis products are suitable for the estimation of ETo in Iberia since they integrate an appropriate correction of radiation and temperature, which proved essential for the good estimation results obtained.
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  • Citations (6)
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References83
Published on Sep 1, 2015in International Journal of Climatology 3.10
M. Cruz-Blanco5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Junta of Andalusia),
C. Santos9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Junta of Andalusia)
+ 1 AuthorsI.J. Lorite16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Junta of Andalusia)
In this study, a detailed spatial analysis of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) estimates provided by the MAK-Adv approach and the well-known Penman-Monteith equation (PM-FAO56) has been carried out. MAK-Adv approach considers a regionally calibrated Makkink equation based on a combination of remotely sensed solar radiation, Rs, provided by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF), and numerical weather forecasts of near-surface air temperature, T2m, provided by t...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2008in Agricultural Water Management 3.18
M. Jabloun1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
A Sahli5
Estimated H-index: 5
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations had improved the version of the Penman-Monteith method (FAO-56 PM) which has recently been proposed as the standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Unfortunately, some weather variables, especially solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed, are often missing which could impede the estimation of ETo with the FAO-56 PM method. To overcome the problem of the availability of climatic parameters, procedures to esti...
149 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 15, 2014in Hydrological Processes 3.18
Prashant K. Srivastava27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bristol),
Dawei Han27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bristol)
+ 1 AuthorsTanvir Islam16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Bristol)
Precipitation and Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) are the most important variables for rainfall–runoff modelling. However, it is not always possible to get access to them from ground-based measurements, particularly in ungauged catchments. This study explores the performance of rainfall and ETo data from the global European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim reanalysis data for the discharge prediction. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model coup...
42 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2015in International Journal of Climatology 3.10
R. Lorente‐Plazas1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Murcia),
Juan Pedro Montavez19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Murcia)
+ 3 AuthorsPedro A. Jiménez16
Estimated H-index: 16
(National Center for Atmospheric Research)
The use of hindcast climatic data is quite extended for multiple applications. However, this approach needs the support of a validation process to allow its drawbacks and, therefore, confidence levels to be assessed. In this work, the strategy relies on an hourly wind database resulting from a dynamical downscaling experiment, with a spatial resolution of 10 km, covering the Iberian Peninsula (IP), driven by the ERA40 reanalysis (1959–2001) extended by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Fo...
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 30, 2011in Hydrological Processes 3.18
Edward P. Glenn53
Estimated H-index: 53
(University of Arizona),
Christopher M. U. Neale28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Utah State University)
+ 1 AuthorsPamela L. Nagler32
Estimated H-index: 32
(United States Geological Survey)
Crop coefficients were developed to determine crop water needs based on the evapotranspiration (ET) of a reference crop under a given set of meteorological conditions. Starting in the 1980s, crop coefficients developed through lysimeter studies or set by expert opinion began to be supplemented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) that measured the actual status of the crop on a field-by-field basis. VIs measure the density of green foliage based on the reflectance of visible and near infra...
91 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 27, 2010in Climate Research 1.86
Qinglong You18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Wolfgang-Albert Flügel19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 3 AuthorsJie Huang18
Estimated H-index: 18
The Tibetan Plateau, with an average elevation of over 4000 m above sea level, is the highest and most extensive highland in the world. Between 1980 and 2005, the annual mean tempera- ture has warmed at the rate of 0.38°C decade -1 . However, little attention has been paid to the variation of wind speed, the most important factor controlling evapotranspiration in the Tibetan Plateau. Here we used monthly mean wind speed from the Chinese Meteorological Administration data set to exa- mine the spa...
41 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2011in Irrigation Science 1.65
Pau Martí17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Polytechnic University of Valencia),
Pablo González-Altozano9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Polytechnic University of Valencia),
María Gasque8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Polytechnic University of Valencia)
The Penman–Monteith equation for reference evapotranspiration (ETo) estimation cannot be applied in many situations, because climatic records are totally or partially not available or reliable. In these cases, empirical equations that rely on few climatic variables are necessary. Nevertheless, the uncertainty associated with empirical model estimations is often high. Thus, the improvement of methods relying on few climatic inputs as well as the development of emergency estimation tools that dema...
30 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2013in International Journal of Climatology 3.10
Nicoleta C. Cristea10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Washington),
Stephanie K. Kampf14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Colorado State University),
Stephen J. Burges28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Washington)
We develop linear regression equations to estimate location-specific average annual reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using one or more of annual averages of: incoming solar radiation (Rs), air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (U). We also provide two sets of equations to estimate growing season ETo, either using one or more of annual averages of Rs, T, RH, and U, or using growing season averages of the same variables. The equations are developed using the FAO-56 Penman–M...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Agricultural Water Management 3.18
Ricardo D. Rosa6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Technical University of Lisbon),
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Technical University of Lisbon)
+ 4 AuthorsRichard G. Allen46
Estimated H-index: 46
(University of Idaho)
Abstract Irrigation planning and scheduling require the availability of modeling tools that are accurate, quick and easy to use. The crop coefficient ( K c )-reference evapotranspiration (ET) method is a traditional method for estimating ET, but has become relatively complicated with the introduction of the dual K c procedure. The dual crop coefficient approach ( K cb + K e ) gives a better estimation of daily crop evapotranspiration because it separately considers soil evaporation and crop tran...
77 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2008in Agricultural Water Management 3.18
Gorka Landeras11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Amaia Ortiz-Barredo3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
José Javier López4
Estimated H-index: 4
Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) determination is a key factor for water balance and irrigation scheduling. Evapotranspiration can be measured directly by high-cost micrometeorological techniques, or estimated by mathematical models. The combination equation of Penman-Monteith, modified by Allen et al. [Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Paper no. 56. FAO, Rome] (PM56), i...
143 Citations Source Cite
Cited By6
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Water Resources Management 2.64
Luis S. Pereira50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia)
Abstract Population growth, increasing demands for food, ever-growing competition for water, reduced supply reliability, climate change and climate uncertainty and droughts, decline in critical ecosystems services, competition for land use, changing regulatory environments, and less participatory water resources governance are contributing to increasing difficulties and challenges in water resource management for agriculture and food. The need for sustainable food security for our global populat...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Theoretical and Applied Climatology 2.32
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia),
J. C. Fontes4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of the Azores)
+ 1 AuthorsLuis S. Pereira50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia)
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) estimations using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (PM-ETo) require a set of weather data including maximum and minimum air temperatures (T max, T min), actual vapor pressure (e a), solar radiation (R s), and wind speed (u 2). However, those data are often not available, or data sets are incomplete due to missing values. A set of procedures were proposed in FAO56 (Allen et al. 1998) to overcome these limitations, and which accuracy for estimating daily ETo...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Theoretical and Applied Climatology 2.32
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Lisbon),
J. C. Fontes4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of the Azores)
+ 1 AuthorsLuis S. Pereira50
Estimated H-index: 50
(University of Lisbon)
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) estimations using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (PM-ETo) require several weather variables that are often not available. Then, ETo may be computed with procedures proposed in FAO56, either using the PM-ETo equation with temperature estimates of actual vapor pressure (e a) and solar radiation (R s), and default wind speed values (u 2), the PMT method, or using the Hargreaves-Samani equation (HS). The accuracy of estimates of daily e a, R s, and u 2 is pr...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2018in Journal of Hydrology 3.73
Miquel Tomas-Burguera9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Spanish National Research Council),
Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Spanish National Research Council),
Marco P. Maneta10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Montana)
Abstract We used an Optimal Interpolation (OI) scheme to generate a reference crop evapotranspiration ( ET o ) grid, forcing meteorological variables, and their respective error variance in the Iberian Peninsula for the period 1989–2011. To perform the OI we used observational data from the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) and outputs from a physically-based climate model. To compute ET o we used five OI schemes to generate grids for the five observed climate variables necessary to compute ...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Agricultural Water Management 3.18
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Instituto Politécnico Nacional),
Diogo S. Martins6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia)
+ 2 AuthorsCarlos Pires9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Lisbon)
Abstract This study aims at assessing the accuracy of estimating daily grass reference evapotranspiration (PM-ET o ) computed with ERA-Interim reanalysis products, as well as to assess the quality of reanalysis products as predictors of daily maximum and minimum temperature, net radiation, dew point temperature and wind speed, which are used to compute PM-ET o . With this propose, ET o computed from local observations of weather variables in 24 weather stations distributed across Continental Por...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management 3.18
Paula Paredes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia),
Luis S. Pereira50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Instituto Superior de Agronomia)
Abstract The computation of the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o ) using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (PM-ET o ) requires data on maximum and minimum air temperatures (T max , T min ), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation (R s ) and wind speed at 2 m height (u 2 ). However, those data are often not available, or data sets may be incomplete or have questionable quality. Various procedures were proposed in FAO56 to overcome these limitations and an abundant literature has been...
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