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Improving Water Productivity of Wheat-Based Cropping Systems in South Asia for Sustained Productivity

Published on Jan 1, 2014in Advances in Agronomy 3.60
· DOI :10.1016/B978-0-12-800131-8.00004-2
S. S. Kukal21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
M.L. Jat22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Harminder S. Sidhu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract Serious water deficits are threatening agricultural sustainability in many regions of the South Asia (SA). While the increase in crop production of irrigated rice–wheat system in SA has been impressive since the 1970s, the low water productivity (WP) has led to the depletion of surface water and groundwaters. In this chapter we have discussed the availability of water resources in SA, identified the positive effects of soil and water management and crop genetic improvement on WP, and then described knowledge gaps and research priorities to further improve the WP with special emphasis on wheat-based cropping systems in irrigated and rainfed regions of SA. A single approach would not be able to tackle the forthcoming challenge of producing more food and fiber with limited or even reduced available water. Integrating irrigation water-saving techniques (water-saving irrigation methods, deficit irrigation, modernization of irrigation system, etc.) with agronomic and soil manipulations viz., optimum irrigation scheduling, direct-seeded rice, alternate wetting and drying in puddle transplanted rice, raised bed planting, crop diversification, conservation tillage, crop residue management, and conjunctive use of good quality (canal) water. Improved soil water management practices for rainfed regions include reducing runoff, rainwater harvesting and recycling, conserving rainwater in the root zone by reducing evaporation losses, and optimal nutrient management. The low WP in farmer’s fields compared with well-managed experimental sites indicates the need for more efforts to transfer water-saving technologies to the farmers. In future we need to increase scientific understanding of the effects of agronomic management on WP across various soil and climate conditions; improve irrigation practices (timing and amounts) and methods (drip and sprinkler) based on real-time monitoring of water status in soil-crop systems; and maximize WP by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales in wheat-based cropping systems.
  • References (397)
  • Citations (30)
Cite
References397
Newest
Published on Jan 18, 2018
Abraham Blum1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Experimental Agriculture 2.09
Hari Ram9
Estimated H-index: 9
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
Yadvinder-Singh27
Estimated H-index: 27
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 2 AuthorsJ. Timsina26
Estimated H-index: 26
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
SUMMARY Continuous rice–wheat (RW) cropping with intensive tillage has resulted in land degradation and inefficient use of water in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of South Asia. Replacement of rice with less water requiring crops such as soybean in RW system and identification of effective strategies for tillage management could result in sustainable cropping system in IGP. A field experiment was conducted for five years on an annual soybean–wheat (SW) rotation in the northwest IGP of India to evalu...
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 3.95
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
V. Kumar39
Estimated H-index: 39
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 9 AuthorsD.K. Sharma14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
Abstract Increasing scarcity of resources (labour, water, and energy) and cost of production, along with climate variability, are major challenges for the sustainability of rice–wheat system in the northwesten Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). We hypothesized that adopting the principles of conservation agriculture together with best crop management practices would improve system productivity and overall efficiency, resulting in a higher profitability. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the perform...
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Food and Energy Security 4.78
Adam H. Price39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Aberd.: University of Aberdeen),
Gareth J. Norton27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)
+ 11 AuthorsAbdelbagi M. Ismail45
Estimated H-index: 45
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
The crop management practice of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is being promoted by IRRI and the national research and extension program in Bangladesh and other parts of the world as a water-saving irrigation practice that reduces the environmental impact of dry season rice production through decreased water usage, and potentially increases yield. Evidence is growing that AWD will dramatically reduce the concentration of arsenic in harvested rice grains conferring a third major advantage ove...
Published on Aug 1, 2013in Field Crops Research 3.87
M.L. Jat22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 3 AuthorsYadvinder-Singh3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract Excessive pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high water requirement of flooded rice crop and intensive tillage have threatened the sustainability of irrigated rice–wheat system (RWS) in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of South Asia. Replacement of rice with less water requiring crops such as maize in the RWS and identification of effective strategies for alternate tillage systems will promote sustainable cropping systems in the IGP. To this effect a 3-year field experiment...
Published on Jun 1, 2013in Environmental Research Letters 6.19
Kate A. Brauman20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Stefan Siebert31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Bonn),
Jonathan A. Foley70
Estimated H-index: 70
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
Irrigation consumes more water than any other human activity, and thus the challenges of water sustainability and food security are closely linked. To evaluate how water resources are used for food production, we examined global patterns of water productivity—food produced (kcal) per unit of water (l) consumed. We document considerable variability in crop water productivity globally, not only across different climatic zones but also within climatic zones. The least water productive systems are d...
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Agricultural Water Management 3.54
M.H. Abd El-Wahed2
Estimated H-index: 2
(FU: Fayoum University),
E.A. Ali6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Assiut University)
Two field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil to study the effects of two irrigation systems [drip (DIS) and sprinkler (SIS)], three amounts of irrigation water (AIW) [I100=100%, I85=85% and I70=70% of the crop evapotranspiration] and five mulching [farmyard manure (FYM)] treatments [0tonha−1 (FYM0), 10tonha−1 spread on the soil surface or incorporated with surface layer (FYM10s or FYM10m, respectively) and 20tonha−1 spread on the soil surface or incorporated with surface layer (FYM20s or...
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Rice Science
Y.V. Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute),
K.K. Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute),
S.K. Sharma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute)
The system of rice intensification (SRI) is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011). In the experiment laid out in a factorial rando...
Published on Jan 1, 2013in African Journal of Agricultural Research
C.M. Parihar6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
R. N. Bhakar1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsSanjeev Sharma11
Estimated H-index: 11
Under limited moisture conditions integrated nutrient management and conservation agriculture (CA) practices plays a vital role. Information on effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) with CA practices in pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum)-mustard (Brassica juncea) system is lacking. The present experiment was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07 in rainy and winter seasons, at IARI, New Delhi, India to investigate the effect of INM and tillage on pearlmillet-mustard system under limited ir...
Cited By30
Newest
Published on Aug 24, 2019in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 1.68
H.S. Jat6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
H.S. Jat5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
+ 4 AuthorsM.L. Jat22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
ABSTRACTContinuous mono-cropping of rice-wheat (RW) system with conventional tillage (CT) based management practices have led to decline in soil health, groundwater table and farmers profit in north-west India. A medium-term (4 years) farmer’s participatory strategic research trial of basmati RW system was conducted to evaluate the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) based management practices on crop yields, water productivity, profitability and soil quality. Six treatments were compared v...
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management 3.54
Raj Pal Meena3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Venkatesh Karnam + 4 AuthorsGyanendra Singh13
Estimated H-index: 13
Abstract Intensive cultivation of irrigated wheat in 30 m ha area is mainly causing the depletion of groundwater resources in India. This calls for urgent technological interventions to improve the water productivity of wheat for sustaining the profitability of farmers. Seventy-one genetically diverse wheat genotypes were screened for high water use efficiency (WUE) under limited soil moisture level at 60% of Cumulative Pan Evaporation (CPE) during 2015-16. Out of these best performing sixteen h...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management 3.54
O.S. Sandhu (PAU: Punjab Agricultural University), Ritu Gupta2
Estimated H-index: 2
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 3 AuthorsYadvinder-Singh27
Estimated H-index: 27
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Abstract The traditional flood irrigation system has led to overexploitation of ground water and low nitrogen (N) use efficiency. In north-western India, maize-based systems with lower irrigation requirement are being advocated as an alternate to rice-based systems to address the issues of declining water table. Bed planting of crops, straw mulching and drip irrigation are known to save precious irrigation water, and improve N use efficiency and grain yields. To this effect a two-year field expe...
Published on May 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management 3.54
H.S. Sidhu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
M.L. Jat22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 6 AuthorsBruno Gérard21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract The future of the South Asia’s rice-wheat (RW) production system is at stake due to continuously depleting aquifers and increasing pressure on underground water under projected climate change scenario. Conventional management factors such as flood irrigation, intensive tillage and residue burning are threatening sustainability of RW system. With increasing adoption of conservation agriculture (CA), sub-surface drip fertigation (SSDF) provides an exceptional opportunity for complementing...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Crop & Pasture Science 1.33
Ahmad Nawaz9
Estimated H-index: 9
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Sultan Qaboos University)
+ 2 AuthorsRattan Lal113
Estimated H-index: 113
(OSU: Ohio State University)
The rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system is the largest agricultural production system worldwide, and is practised on 24 Mha in Asia. Many factors have threatened the long-term sustainability of conventional rice–wheat cropping systems, including degradation of soil health, water scarcity, labour/energy crises, nutrient imbalances, low soil organic matter contents, complex weed and insect flora, the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds, and greenhouse-gas emissio...
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Dave Watson (CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
The advent of climate change, especially the greater frequency of temperature extremes and both erratic and extreme precipitation, will increasingly challenge the ability of maize, wheat and rice agri-food systems to meet growing global demand for food and feed. The challenge to agri-food systems is threefold. First, increasing temperature (especially extreme temperature events) and reduced or erratic rainfall limits the ability of these crops to produce a harvestable product, especially in rain...
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Dave Watson (CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
In order to meet the growing needs of the global food system, whilst at the same time mitigating the effects of climate change and other production limiting factors and reducing negative environmental externalities, maize, wheat and rice agri-food systems will be required to sustainably intensify production. In the irrigated systems of developing countries, significant scope exists for increasing water use efficiency through new soil, water and fertiliser management approaches (such as Conservat...