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Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

Published on May 30, 2016in Frontiers in Psychology 2.13
· DOI :10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00753
Carla A. Zimmerman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Adrienne R. Carter-Sowell9
Estimated H-index: 9
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Xiaohong Xu6
Estimated H-index: 6
(BGSU: Bowling Green State University)
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Abstract
Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a “chilly climate,” devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee’s specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.
  • References (45)
  • Citations (9)
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References45
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Sex Roles 2.28
Adrienne R. Carter-Sowell9
Estimated H-index: 9
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Carla A. Zimmerman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
In this commentary, we reflect and expand on Remedios and Snyder’s (2015) target paper “How Women of Color Detect and Respond to Multiple Forms of Prejudice.” We, initially, address the perceived lack of available women of color participants for human behavior studies conducted in the United States. We offer remedies to this expectation of deficits in order for researchers to retool their recruitment plans for traditional undergraduate subjects. Specifically, we highlight the changing demographi...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 3, 2015in Journal of Social Psychology 1.10
John B. Nezlek5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Social Sciences and Humanities),
Eric D. Wesselmann17
Estimated H-index: 17
(ISU: Illinois State University)
+ 1 AuthorsKipling D. Williams K D55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Purdue University)
ABSTRACTOstracism is a negative interpersonal experience that has been studied primarily in laboratory settings. Moreover, these studies have focused primarily on how people feel when they have been ostracized. The present study extended this research by investigating ostracism as it occurs in daily life, focusing on how people feel about ostracizing someone. Using a method modeled after the Rochester Interaction Record (RIR), for two weeks, 64 participants (adults residing in the community) des...
19 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2015in Organization Science 3.26
Jane O'Reilly5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of O: University of Ottawa),
Sandra L. Robinson25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
+ 1 AuthorsSara Banki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Sharif University of Technology)
Ostracism has been recognized as conceptually and empirically distinct from harassment. Drawing from theory and research that suggests that employees have a strong need to belong in their organizations, we examine the comparative frequency and impact of ostracism and harassment in organizations across three field studies. Study 1 finds that a wide range of employees perceive ostracism, compared with harassment, to be more socially acceptable, less psychologically harmful, and less likely to be p...
55 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2014in Sex Roles 2.28
Isis H. Settles18
Estimated H-index: 18
(MSU: Michigan State University),
Rachel C. O’Connor2
Estimated H-index: 2
(MSU: Michigan State University)
In a survey study of 458 U.S. women and men, we examined experiences of incivility at an academic conference, a context that represents an important extension of the academic/professional workplace. We hypothesized and found that women reported more incivility, perceived the climate to be more sexist, and reported more conference exclusion than men. Counter to our prediction, men and women did not differ in how negatively they viewed the climate or their conference satisfaction. Since incivility...
21 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2.60
Nir Halevy15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Stanford University),
Taya R. Cohen17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)
+ 2 AuthorsA. T. Panter20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
This research investigated the reciprocal relationship between mental models of conflict and various forms of dysfunctional social relations in organizations, including experiences of task and relationship conflicts, interpersonal hostility, workplace ostracism, and abusive supervision. We conceptualize individual differences in conflict construals as reflecting variation in people’s belief structures about conflict and explore how different elements in people’s associative networks—in particula...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014
Jennifer L. Welbourne10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Texas System),
Ashwini Gangadharan3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Texas System),
Ana M. Sariol3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Texas System)
Workplace incivility is a subtle type of deviant work behavior that is low in intensity and violates workplace norms of respect. Past research demonstrates the harmful impact of incivility on work attitudes and employee wellbeing; however, little is known about how incivility is experienced by individuals with different cultural orientations. The current study examined whether cultural dimensions of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism moderated the relationships between workpl...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 1.68
Kristin L. Sommer6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CUNY: City University of New York),
Juran Yoon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CUNY: City University of New York)
This investigation examined whether the strain of ignoring another depends on the other’s desirability as a relationship partner. Participants were asked to ignore or converse with highly likeable (polite and egalitarian) or highly unlikeable (rude and bigoted) acquaintance. They then completed a task in which good performance hinged on successful thought regulation. Study 1 revealed that participants performed worse in the self-regulatory task after conversing with (compared to ignoring) the un...
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Journal of Management 9.06
Lilia M. Cortina29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UM: University of Michigan),
Dana Kabat-Farr5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UM: University of Michigan)
+ 2 AuthorsVicki J. Magley24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UConn: University of Connecticut)
This collection of studies tested aspects of Cortina’s theory of selective incivility as a “modern” manifestation of sexism and racism in the workplace and also tested an extension of that theory to ageism. Survey data came from employees in three organizations: a city government (N = 369), a law enforcement agency (N = 653), and the U.S. military (N = 15,497). According to analyses of simple mediation, target gender and race (but not age) affected vulnerability to uncivil treatment on the job, ...
129 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2013in International Journal of Hospitality Management 4.46
Hongdan Zhao2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Tongji University),
Zhenglong Peng3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Tongji University),
Geoff Sheard3
Estimated H-index: 3
Abstract This study seeks to examine the effect of workplace ostracism on hospitality employees’ counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). The study specifically focuses on the joint moderating roles of proactive personality and political skill. Using a time-lagged research design, we collected data from 239 supervisor–subordinate dyads in 21 Chinese hotels. As predicted, we found that workplace ostracism was positively related to hospitality employees’ CWBs, specifically organizational counterpr...
50 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Journal of Social Psychology 1.10
Robert W. Renn16
Estimated H-index: 16
(U of M: University of Memphis),
David G. Allen28
Estimated H-index: 28
(U of M: University of Memphis),
Tobias M. Huning2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Columbus State University)
Although studies indicate that perceived social exclusion is positively related to self-defeating behavior (SDB) and turnover intentions, studies have not integrated this research to examine the potential links among perceived social exclusion at work, SDB, and actual turnover. Using multisource data obtained from 246 employees and their immediate supervisors, we obtained support for a theoretical model in which perceived social exclusion relates directly and positively to turnover intentions an...
24 Citations Source Cite
Cited By9
Newest
Published on Jan 7, 2019in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah Chauvin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Benoit H. Mulsant70
Estimated H-index: 70
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 3 AuthorsSimone N. Vigod24
Estimated H-index: 24
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Objectives:Gender inequity in academic medicine persists despite increases in the number of women physicians. We sought to explore gender differences in research productivity for academic psychiatrists in Canada.Methods:In a cross-sectional study of the 3379 psychiatrists in all 17 university departments of psychiatry in Canada, research productivity, as measured by the h-index and number of publications, was compared between women and men using a negative log binomial regression model to genera...
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Adrienne R. Carter-Sowell9
Estimated H-index: 9
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Jyotsna Vaid26
Estimated H-index: 26
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 2 AuthorsJericka S. Battle1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
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Kathi N. Miner11
Estimated H-index: 11
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Samantha C. January2
Estimated H-index: 2
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
+ 1 AuthorsAdrienne R. Carter-Sowell9
Estimated H-index: 9
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Purpose The purpose of this project was to examine the extent to which early-career women faculty in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) experience working in a chilly interpersonal climate (as indicated by experiences of ostracism and incivility) and how those experiences relate to work and non-work well-being outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Data came from a sample of 96 early-career STEM faculty (Study 1) and a sample of 68 early-career women STEM faculty (Study 2). Both sam...
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Published on Feb 1, 2019in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2.60
Ethan Dahl2
Estimated H-index: 2
(TTU: Texas Tech University),
Elizabeth M. Niedbala2
Estimated H-index: 2
(TTU: Texas Tech University),
Zachary P. Hohman11
Estimated H-index: 11
(TTU: Texas Tech University)
Ostracism is an aversive situation that occurs frequently in everyday life; however, few empirical studies have investigated multiple experiences of inclusion or ostracism from the same group. The prior work in this area has also not evaluated the influence of subsequent inclusion and ostracism on identification with the group, perceptions of the group, or group member behaviors. Across three experiments, the current study investigated the impact of subsequent inclusion and ostracism on an indiv...
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Published on Dec 1, 2018in Scientific Reports 4.01
Joshua Conrad Jackson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill),
Jonathan Jong9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Oxford)
+ 4 AuthorsJamin Halberstadt30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Otago)
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal – and potentially interactive – effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a ...
3 Citations Source Cite
Emily A Vargas1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UM: University of Michigan),
Amy Westmoreland1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UM: University of Michigan)
+ 1 AuthorsFiona Lee22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UM: University of Michigan)
Purpose Research on organizational diversity initiatives generally focus on either numerical diversity or racial climate. Both facets of diversity are critical, however, research has rarely examined their impact simultaneously. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In the current study, the authors use the context of higher education, to examine how variations in the composite of numerical diversity and racial climate predict psychological disparities between facult...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Talia Esnard (UWI: University of the West Indies), Deirdre Cobb-Roberts5
Estimated H-index: 5
(USF: University of South Florida)
Larger discourses and social constructions of Black persons in the US are often framed within social misrepresentations, prejudices, stereotypes, and myths (Christian in Black feminist criticism—Perspectives on Black women writers. Pergamon, New York, NY, 1985; Fox-Genovese in Within the plantation household: Black and White women of the Old South. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 1988; Coltrane & Messineo in Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 42:363–389, 2000; Smedley & Smedle...
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Published on Sep 1, 2017in Annals of The Entomological Society of America 1.67
M Reeve1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Matthew Partridge6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Cranfield University)
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 3, 2017in Baltic Journal of Management 1.47
Yang Woon Chung1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Ji Yeon Yang1
Estimated H-index: 1
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effects of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) for the relationship between workplace ostracism with helping behavior, voicing behavior, in-role behavior, and deviant behavior. The workplace has now become a social context where ostracism occurs and the study emphasizes how ostracism can affect workplace behaviors. Design/methodology/approach The study was designed using a three-wave self-reported survey. Confirmatory factor ana...
3 Citations Source Cite