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Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

Published on Jan 1, 2018in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
· DOI :10.1177/1359105316655471
Kate E. Mulgrew6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of the Sunshine Coast),
Marika Tiggemann74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Flinders University)
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Abstract
We examined whether shifting young women’s (N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.
  • References (32)
  • Citations (17)
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References32
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Body Image 3.12
Marika Tiggemann74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Flinders University),
Mia Zaccardo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Flinders University)
Abstract Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led...
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Body Image 3.12
Jessica M. Alleva9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UM: Maastricht University),
Carolien Martijn19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UM: Maastricht University)
+ 2 AuthorsKai Karos6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
Abstract This study tested Expand Your Horizon , a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women ( M age = 22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Fo...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Sex Roles 2.28
Kate E. Mulgrew6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of the Sunshine Coast),
Saskia M. Hennes1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of the Sunshine Coast)
Negative effects of viewing images of thin and attractive models have been well documented. However, these models are typically presented in an objectified, passive form with a focus on the aesthetic qualities of the body. Little is known about women’s responses to models presented in an active form, with a focus on athleticism and performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test body conceptualization theory by exposing women to models presented with a focus on the body-as-object (...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Appetite 3.50
Lisa Mask7
Estimated H-index: 7
(U of O: University of Ottawa),
Céline M. Blanchard16
Estimated H-index: 16
(U of O: University of Ottawa),
Amanda Baker37
Estimated H-index: 37
(U of O: University of Ottawa)
Abstract Theoretical and empirical research suggests that valuing the body in terms of its functionality and physical competence (rather than its appearance) may improve women's relationships with their body and food. We tested this proposition by investigating women's responses to contrasting portrayals of the female body as a function of viewers' general motivation (SD: self-determined vs NSD: non self-determined). A sample of undergraduate women ( N = 91) was randomly assigned to view a “body...
Published on Sep 1, 2014in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
Erlinde Cornelis3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UGent: Ghent University),
Verolien Cauberghe16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UGent: Ghent University),
Patrick De Pelsmacker33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Antwerp)
Two experimental studies test the effectiveness of health versus appearance-related arguments in two-sided messages. The first study shows that two-sided messages to discourage suntanning are more effective when using appearance-focused instead of health-focused arguments. Study 2 elaborates on the underlying mechanism and extends the generalization of the results of the first study, by investigating two-sided messages to promote physical exercise. The results show that for health-motivated cons...
Published on Aug 1, 2014in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
Louise Wasylkiw10
Estimated H-index: 10
(MtA: Mount Allison University),
Nicole A. Butler1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MtA: Mount Allison University)
Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object–process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bod...
Published on Jun 1, 2014in Psychology of Women Quarterly 3.26
Jessica M. Alleva9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UM: Maastricht University),
Carolien Martijn19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UM: Maastricht University)
+ 1 AuthorsChantal Nederkoorn38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UM: Maastricht University)
With the current studies, we aimed to improve body satisfaction by inducing a functionality-based focus on the body. Objectification theory was used as a guiding framework for this approach. In Study 1, 59 female and 59 male undergraduates and, in Study 2, 118 women between the ages of 30 and 50 years completed a writing assignment to experimentally manipulate their body focus. The writing assignment instructions were to describe what one’s body can do (functionality focus) or what one’s body lo...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Psychology of Men and Masculinity 1.93
Kate E. Mulgrew6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Laura M. Johnson1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsMary Katsikitis10
Estimated H-index: 10
Media research has found that brief exposure to idealized images can negatively affect men’s body satisfaction. However, there has been little variation in the types of images previously used in research. This study aimed to test the predictions of body conceptualization theory by comparing the effects of idealized images that focus on aesthetic (body-as-object; BAO) or functional (body-as-process; BAP) dimensions. It was expected that BAO images would have greater negative effects than BAP or n...
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Body Image 3.12
Emma Halliwell25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of the West of England)
Abstract This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women ( N = 112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalizati...
Published on Mar 1, 2012in Psychology of Women Quarterly 3.26
Stephen L. Franzoi22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Kris Vasquez1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Marquette University)
+ 3 AuthorsMegan Aebly1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Marquette University)
This study examined similarities and differences in women’s and men’s comparison tendencies and perfection beliefs when evaluating their face, body shape, and physical abilities, as well as how these tendencies and beliefs relate to their body esteem. College students (90 women and 88 men) completed the Body Esteem Scale and answered questions concerning their social comparison and temporal comparison tendencies related to face, body shape, and physical abilities evaluations as well as personal ...
Cited By17
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Body Image 3.12
Erin Vinoski Thomas1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte),
Jan Warren-Findlow12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
+ 3 AuthorsCharlie L. Reeve20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract A current hypothesis is that women who learn to focus on their body's functionality versus appearance may experience improved body image outcomes. This research is underdeveloped in considering the perspectives of women with visible physical disabilities (WPD), who have differences in body functionality and appearance that influence their body image. Our study aimed to understand how WPD conceptualize body image and body functionality and to clarify relationships between these construct...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Poetics 1.52
Daniela Cesiri1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ca' Foscari University of Venice),
Daniela Cesiri
Abstract The study investigates the websites of ten British celebrity chefs, ranging between the age of 38 and 82. They were chosen to be a representative sample in terms of gender, age and, above all, culinary personas. Using the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and the Positive Discourse Analysis (PDA) approaches, the study examines the paragraphs that precede the recipes in order to understand the attitude towards food that makes the chefs easily recognizable as specific culinary personas. T...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
Dinusha Nc Cragg1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of the Sunshine Coast),
Kate E. Mulgrew6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of the Sunshine Coast),
Lee Kannis-Dymand4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of the Sunshine Coast)
We examined the comparative effectiveness of the Dove Evolution commercial and disclaimer labels as media literacy interventions. Women (N = 287) viewed thin-ideal images by themselves, preceded by the Dove Evolution commercial, or containing specific or generic disclaimer labels. Participants completed pre- and post-test measures of body satisfaction, post-test social comparison, and media literacy. Interventions were not effective in mitigating drops in body satisfaction, reducing social compa...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Body Image 3.12
Diana E. Betz3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Loyola University Maryland),
Natalie J. Sabik6
Estimated H-index: 6
(URI: University of Rhode Island),
Laura R. Ramsey9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Bridgewater State University)
Abstract Body dissatisfaction and self-objectification can arise when women view idealized thin bodies, as well as idealized athletic or curvy bodies. State-level social comparisons have been shown to mediate such effects, with mixed evidence for the moderating role of trait-level social comparison. An experiment tested the hypotheses that viewing messages idealizing thin, athletic, and curvy bodies would be associated with greater state social comparison as compared to a body acceptance conditi...
Published on Apr 8, 2019in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
Roni Elran-Barak4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Haifa)
The aim of this research is to study young adults who try to lose weight using only healthful weight-control behaviors. Secondary analyses of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adu...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in BMC Public Health 2.57
Michelle Raggatt1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Burnet Institute),
Cassandra J. C. Wright6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Monash University)
+ 4 AuthorsMegan S. C. Lim20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Monash University)
Background Fitspiration is a popular social media trend containing images, quotes and advice related to exercise and healthy eating. This study aimed to 1) describe the types of fitspiration content that users access and how they engage with content, 2) investigate the disordered eating and exercise behaviours and psychological distress of individuals who access fitspiration, and 3) understand the perceived influence of fitspiration on health and wellbeing.
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Body Image 3.12
Marika Tiggemann74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Flinders University),
Isabella Barbato1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Flinders University)
Abstract Instagram is an increasingly popular social networking site where users post and share photos. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing appearance-related comments accompanying Instagram images on women’s body image. Participants were 128 female undergraduate students who viewed a set of attractive images paired with a brief positive comment. For half the participants, comments were related to appearance; the other half viewed the same images ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Body Image 3.12
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer101
Estimated H-index: 101
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Allison W. Watts12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Sarah A. Rydell17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
Abstract This study explored the perceived impact of yoga on body image. Young adults ( n = 34 female, 12 male; M age = 30.6 [ SD = 1.6]) practicing yoga were interviewed and data were analyzed for emerging themes across weight status. In general, participants discussed the positive impact of yoga on their body image, but some described both a positive and negative impact. Yoga was perceived as having a positive impact on body image via perceived physical changes, gratitude for one’s body, a sen...
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Appetite 3.50
Jennifer B. Webb12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte),
Courtney B. Rogers3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
+ 1 AuthorsMeagan P. Padro2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNCC: University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract A growing evidence base confirms sociocultural theory's predictions regarding the influence of direct exposure to family factors (e.g., parental commentary) in promoting disordered eating behavior as mediated by negative body image. Nevertheless, this model has not been specifically applied to investigating indirect or vicarious exposure to family communications (e.g., negative body talk) in estimating mindful eating behavior via positive body image intervening variables. Therefore, to ...