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Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in a Dutch Middle-Aged and Elderly Population

Published on Sep 1, 2016in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 6.09
· DOI :10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307578
Jaike Praagman3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Ester Al de Jonge7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 6 AuthorsOscar H. Franco74
Estimated H-index: 74
Abstract
Objective— We assessed whether the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) depends on the food source, the carbon chain length of SFA, and the substituting macronutrient. Approach and Results— From the Rotterdam Study, 4722 men and women (≥55 years) were included. Baseline (1990–1993) SFA intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD) was ascertained by medical records. Using multivariable Cox regression analysis, we calculated CHD risks for higher intakes of total SFA, SFA from specific food sources, SFA differing in carbon chain length, and substituting other macronutrients instead of SFA. During a median follow-up of 16.3 years, 659 CHD events occurred. Total SFA intake was not associated with CHD risk (hazard ratio [HR] per 5 en%, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.22), and neither was SFA from specific food sources. A higher CHD risk was observed for palmitic acid (16:0) intake (HR SD , 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.15) but not for SFA with other chain lengths. Except for a higher CHD risk for substitution of SFA with animal protein (HR 5en% , 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.51), substitution with other macronutrients was not associated with CHD. Conclusions— In this Dutch population, we observed that a higher intake of palmitic acid, which accounts for ≈50% of the total SFA intake, was associated with a higher CHD risk, as was substitution of total SFA with animal protein. Nevertheless, we found no association between total SFA intake and CHD risk, which did not differ by food source.
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  • References (23)
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References23
Newest
Published on Feb 1, 2016in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Jaike Praagman3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University),
Joline W.J. Beulens48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 4 AuthorsY. T. van der Schouw88
Estimated H-index: 88
(UU: Utrecht University)
Background: The association between saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk is debated. Objective: We sought to investigate whether dietary SFAs were associated with IHD risk and whether associations depended on 1) the substituting macronutrient, 2) the carbon chain length of SFAs, and 3) the SFA food source. Design: Baseline (1993-1997) SFA intake was measured with a foodfrequency questionnaire among 35,597 participants from the European Prospective Investigation...
63 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 13, 2016in Journal of the American Heart Association 4.45
Qianyi Wang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Tufts University),
Ashkan Afshin29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Tufts University)
+ 113 AuthorsMajid Ezzati103
Estimated H-index: 103
(Imperial College London)
Background Saturated fat (SFA), ω‐6 (n‐6) polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and trans fat (TFA) influence risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but attributable CHD mortalities by country, age, sex, and time are unclear. Methods and Results National intakes of SFA, n‐6 PUFA, and TFA were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical model based on country‐specific dietary surveys; food availability data; and, for TFA, industry reports on fats/oils and packaged foods. Etiologic effects of dietary fats on CHD...
28 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 6, 2015in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16.83
Yanping Li43
Estimated H-index: 43
,
Adela Hruby18
Estimated H-index: 18
+ 8 AuthorsBarry M. Popkin319
Estimated H-index: 319
Background The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk.
116 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16.83
Yanping Li43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Harvard University),
Adela Hruby18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Harvard University)
+ 8 AuthorsBarry M. Popkin319
Estimated H-index: 319
(Harvard University)
Abstract Background The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Objectives This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Methods We followed 84,628 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,9...
138 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 11, 2015in BMJ 23.56
Russell J. de Souza35
Estimated H-index: 35
,
Andrew Mente30
Estimated H-index: 30
(McMaster University)
+ 8 AuthorsJoseph Beyene61
Estimated H-index: 61
(McMaster University)
Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliogra...
336 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 28, 2015in Circulation 18.88
Vasanti S. Malik34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Harvard University),
Stephanie E. Chiuve44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Harvard University)
+ 4 AuthorsQi Sun62
Estimated H-index: 62
(Harvard University)
Background—Circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLCSFAs) may play an active role in the origin of cardiometabolic diseases. Methods and Results—We measured 3 VLCSFAs (C20:0, C22:0, and C24:0) in plasma and erythrocytes using gas-liquid chromatography among 794 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases who were prospectively identified and confirmed among women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1990–2006) and among men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1994–2008)....
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 10, 2015in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 6.75
Lee Hooper51
Estimated H-index: 51
(UEA: University of East Anglia),
Nicole Martin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Lond: University of London)
+ 1 AuthorsGeorge Davey-Smith177
Estimated H-index: 177
(UoB: University of Bristol)
Background Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats that are lost in the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. This review is part of a series split from and updating an overarching review. Objectives To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO),...
138 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 3.05
Joyce A. Nettleton7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Philippe Legrand33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
Ronald P. Mensink60
Estimated H-index: 60
This paper summarizes a debate on whether to update recommendations for the consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA); this debate was held at the 11th congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids in Stockholm, Sweden, June 28-July 2, 2014. Recommendations to reduce SFA intakes are based largely on the premise that high intakes of SFA raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels, which in turn increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Several ...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 28, 2014in Circulation 18.88
Maryam Sadat Farvid1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services),
Ming Ding10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Harvard University)
+ 5 AuthorsFrank B. Hu202
Estimated H-index: 202
(Harvard University)
Background—Previous studies on intake of linoleic acid (LA), the predominant n-6 fatty acid, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk have generated inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize the evidence regarding the relation of dietary LA intake and CHD risk. Methods and Results—We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through June 2013 for prospective cohort studies that reported the association between dietary LA and CHD ...
179 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 18, 2014in Annals of Internal Medicine 19.38
Rajiv Chowdhury47
Estimated H-index: 47
,
Samantha Warnakula9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 11 AuthorsSimon G. Thompson95
Estimated H-index: 95
Primary Funding Source: British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Cambridge National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, and Gates Cambridge.
606 Citations Source Cite
Cited By16
Newest
Published on Apr 6, 2019in Lipids in Health and Disease 2.66
Yongjian Zhu (Zhengzhou University), Yacong Bo (Zhengzhou University), Yanhua Liu (Zhengzhou University)
Background Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary fat intake and cardiovascular disease. However, dietary recommendations based on systematic review and meta-analysis might be more credible.
Source Cite
Published on May 16, 2019in Nature Reviews Cardiology 15.16
Jason H.Y. Wu33
Estimated H-index: 33
(The George Institute for Global Health),
Renata Micha37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Tufts University),
Dariush Mozaffarian113
Estimated H-index: 113
(Tufts University)
The effect of dietary fats on cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has generated tremendous interest. Many earlier investigations focused on total fat and conventional fat classes (such as saturated and unsaturated fats) and their influence on a limited number of risk factors. However, dietary fats comprise heterogeneous molecules with diverse structures, and growing research in the past two decades supports correspondingly complex health effe...
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Published on Mar 1, 2019in International Journal of Cardiology 4.03
Jaike Praagman3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University),
Linda E.T. Vissers3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 8 AuthorsMarianne Uhre Jakobsen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark)
Abstract Background The effect of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on serum cholesterol levels depends on their carbon-chain length. Whether the association with myocardial infarction (MI) also differs across individual SFAs is unclear. We examined the association between consumption of individual SFAs, differing in chain lengths ranging from 4 through 18 carbons, and risk of MI. Methods We used data from 22,050 and 53,375 participants from EPIC-Norfolk (UK) and EPIC-Denmark, respectively...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2019in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
David Baer39
Estimated H-index: 39
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
Janet A. Novotny24
Estimated H-index: 24
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service)
Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Scientific Reports 4.12
Flavia Spreafico2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro),
Rafael Carvalho Sales1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)
+ 10 AuthorsEduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Oviedo)
Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months d...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 7, 2018in European Heart Journal 23.43
Peter Mirtschink7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ETH Zurich),
Cholsoon Jang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)
+ 1 AuthorsWilhelm Krek48
Estimated H-index: 48
(ETH Zurich)
Abstract Despite strong indications that increased consumption of added sugars correlates with greater risks of developing cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of the caloric intake, the worldwide sugar consumption remains high. In considering the negative health impact of overconsumption of dietary sugars, increased attention is recently being given to the role of the fructose component of high-sugar foods in driving CMS. The primary organs capable of met...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Scientific Reports 4.12
Yiping Li4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Peking Union Medical College),
Dong Zhang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Peking Union Medical College)
+ 9 AuthorsJingzhou Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Peking Union Medical College)
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with complex metabolic disorders, but its molecular aetiology remains unclear. Using a novel nontargeted metabolomics approach, we explored the global metabolic perturbation profile for CHD. Blood samples from 150 patients with severe obstructive CHD and 150 angiographically normal controls were collected. Metabolic fingerprinting was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 3.32
Peter M. Clifton64
Estimated H-index: 64
(UniSA: University of South Australia),
Jennifer B. Keogh38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UniSA: University of South Australia)
Abstract Aims Over the last 7 years there has been intense debate about the advice to reduce saturated fat and increase polyunsaturated fat to reduce CVD risk. The aim of this review was to examine systematic reviews and meta-analyses since 2010 on this topic plus additional cohort studies and interventions not included in these reviews. Data Synthesis High saturated and trans fat intake (which elevates LDL like saturated fat) in the Nurses and Health Professional Follow-Up Studies combined is a...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2017in The Lancet 53.25
Mahshid Dehghan22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Population Health Research Institute),
Andrew Mente30
Estimated H-index: 30
(McMaster University)
+ 352 AuthorsAnders H. Rosengren84
Estimated H-index: 84
(University of Gothenburg)
Summary Background The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35–70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median fo...
168 Citations Source Cite