Match!

Combustion characteristics of butanol isomers in multiphase droplet configurations

Published on Jul 1, 2016in Combustion and Flame4.12
· DOI :10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2016.04.018
Yu Cheng Liu11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UM: University of Michigan),
Fahd E. Alam5
Estimated H-index: 5
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 3 AuthorsTanvir Farouk19
Estimated H-index: 19
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Abstract
Abstract This study reports results of experiments on the isolated droplet burning characteristics of butanol isomers ( n -, iso -, sec -, and tert -) under standard atmosphere conditions in an environment that promotes spherical combustion. The data are compared with predictions from a detailed numerical model (DNM) that incorporates complex combustion chemistry, radiative heat transfer, temperature dependent variable fluid properties, and unsteady gas and liquid transport. Computational predictions are generated using the high temperature kinetic models of Sarathy et al. (2012) and Merchant et al. (2013). The experiments were performed in a free-fall facility to reduce the effects of buoyancy and produce spherical droplet flames. Motion of single droplets with diameters ranged from 0.52 mm to 0.56 mm was eliminated by tethering them to two small-diameter SiC filaments (∼14 µm diameter). In all the experiments, minimal sooting was observed, offering the opportunity for direct comparison of the experimental measurements with DNM predictions that neglect soot kinetics. The experimental data showed that the burning rates of iso - and sec -butanol are very close to that of n -butanol, differing only in flame structure. The flame stand-off ratios (FSR) for n -butanol flames are smaller than those for the isomers, while tert -butanol flames exhibited the largest FSR. DNM predictions based upon the kinetic model of Sarathy et al. over-predict the droplet burning rates and FSRs of all the isomers except n -butanol. Predictions using a kinetic model based upon the work of Merchant et al. agree much better with the experimental data, though relatively higher discrepancies are evident for tert -butanol simulation results. Further analyses of the predictions using the two kinetic models and their differences are discussed. It is found that the disparity in transport coefficients for isomer specific species for Sarathy et al. model fosters deviation in computational predictions against these newly acquired droplet combustion data presented in this study.
  • References (63)
  • Citations (9)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
2015
5 Authors (Fahd E. Alam, ..., Tanvir Farouk)
16 Citations
5 Citations
99 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References63
Newest
#1Ming Zheng (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 26
#2Xiaoye Han (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 14
Last. Jianxin Wang (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 33
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Highly-diluted diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion can achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions but its implementation is impeded by the lack of control on the ignition timing and excessively early combustion phasing (before TDC) that limit the achievable engine load and result in a reduced energy efficiency. The low volatility and high reactivity of common diesel fuels make it non-conducive for HCCI combustion; hence in this work, n-butanol that has a low r...
48 CitationsSource
Fuels derived from biofeedstocks are receiving attention for their potential as additives to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Normal butanol, in particular, can enhance performance compared to ethanol because of its higher energy density. To better understand the combustion dynamics of n-butanol in the context of gasoline, experiments are reported here to examine the isolated droplet combustion characteristics of an 87 octane (ethanol-free) gasoline and a mixture of gasoline (0...
15 CitationsSource
#1Rakesh Kumar Maurya (IITK: Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)H-Index: 18
#2Avinash Kumar Agarwal (IITK: Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)H-Index: 46
31 CitationsSource
#1Yu Cheng Liu (Cornell University)H-Index: 11
#2Yuhao Xu (Cornell University)H-Index: 8
Last. Michael C. Hicks (Glenn Research Center)H-Index: 9
view all 4 authors...
This study reports experimental evidence of gas phase micro-convection induced by support fibers used in droplet combustion experimentation. Soot aggregates formed during combustion of n-octane and n-decane droplets (initial diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 5 mm) provide natural seeds to reveal the thermal and flow asymmetries involved. The experiments are carried out in an environment that reduces the influence of forced and buoyant convection for both free-floating (unsupported) and fiber-supp...
15 CitationsSource
#1Fahd E. Alam (USC: University of South Carolina)H-Index: 5
#2Yu Cheng Liu (Cornell University)H-Index: 11
Last. Tanvir Farouk (USC: University of South Carolina)H-Index: 19
view all 5 authors...
16 CitationsSource
#1Zheng Chen (Hunan University)H-Index: 38
#1Zheng Chen (Hunan University)H-Index: 32
Last. Chia-Fon Lee (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 37
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compar...
148 CitationsSource
#2S. Mani SarathyH-Index: 28
Last. Anthony J. MarcheseH-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT—28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol conten...
31 CitationsSource
#1Kuo-Long Pan (NTU: National Taiwan University)H-Index: 14
#2Ming-Chun Chiu (NTU: National Taiwan University)H-Index: 1
Abstract Based on a drop tower built in the lab space, an environment of reduced gravity was employed to study the droplet combustion of multi-component fuels, specifically of diesel mixed with alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol) and biodiesel. The falling duration was about 0.68 s and was sufficient for complete burning of a droplet with a diameter as small as 0.5 mm that was suspended at the crossing point of two ultra-thin fibers with a diameter of 2.5 μm. The fibers were made of cera...
24 CitationsSource
#1Kazuyo Fushimi (Kadai: Kagoshima University)H-Index: 2
#2Eiji Kinoshita (Kadai: Kagoshima University)H-Index: 9
Last. Yasufumi Yoshimoto (Niigata Institute of Technology)H-Index: 10
view all 3 authors...
14 CitationsSource
#1Shamel S. Merchant (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 9
#2Everton Fernando Zanoelo (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)H-Index: 14
Last. William H. Green (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 53
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The first reaction mechanism for iso -butanol (372 species and 8723 reversible elementary reactions) pyrolysis and combustion that includes pressure dependent kinetics and proposes reaction pathways to soot precursors has been automatically generated using the open-source software package RMG. High-pressure reaction rate coefficients for important hydrogen abstraction reactions from iso -butanol by hydrogen, methyl and HO 2 were calculated using quantum chemistry at the CBS-QB3 level. T...
52 CitationsSource
Cited By9
Newest
Abstract The transient modeling of radiation effects on combustion of an isolated nonane and hexanol droplet in standard atmospheric conditions with finite rate chemistry has been performed. Transient effects have been included in a comprehensive manner by including initial droplet heating, variable liquid and gas phase properties and non-luminous gas radiations. Results show that gas radiations are important for determining various parameters in droplet combustion. Estimation of Planck's mean a...
Source
#1Fatemeh Sadat Mirhashemi (FUM: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)H-Index: 2
#2Hassan Sadrnia (FUM: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)H-Index: 8
Abstract There are some challenges about NOX emissions exhausted from diesel engines fueled with biodiesel. Due to increasingly stringent emission regulations, the different methods such as varying the engine operating parameters, treatment with antioxidant additive and blending fuels have been adapted to reduce emissions of biodiesel combustion. One of the effective methods is the combustion of dual or blending fuels. Various fuels such as gasoline, hydrogen, natural gas, biogas, different type...
9 CitationsSource
#1Qi Xia (Wenzhou University)H-Index: 2
#2Kui Wang (Wenzhou University)H-Index: 1
Last. Wei Tian (Xihua University)H-Index: 2
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Combustion and emission characteristics of butanol isomers were experimentally investigated on a four-cylinder common-rail diesel engine, which was modified to operate in butanol/diesel compound combustion (BDCC) mode. Butanol isomers were utilized as a renewable fuels to alleviate the consumption of fossil fuels by replacing diesel, the substitution ratio was defined as the ratio of the quantity of diesel replaced by butanol isomers to the original diesel quantity. The combustion and e...
4 CitationsSource
#1Álvaro Muelas (University of Zaragoza)H-Index: 2
#2Pilar Remacha (University of Zaragoza)H-Index: 2
Last. Javier Ballester (University of Zaragoza)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The droplet combustion characteristics of conventional heating oil, UCO biodiesel and their mixtures (10 and 20% biodiesel by volume) were examined in a free-falling droplet combustion facility designed to approach the typical temperature and oxygen conditions around individual droplets in real boiler flames. Moreover, and given the importance of avoiding effects due to gravity or convection in this type of experiments, the quite spherical soot shells recorded (infrequent event in free-...
4 CitationsSource
#1Vasudevan Raghavan (Indian Institute of Technology Madras)H-Index: 15
Understanding the transport processes during evaporation and combustion of isolated liquid fuel droplet is highly important in several applications involving sprays. Comprehensive numerical models assist in carrying out simulations involving interlinked transport processes in liquid and gas phases using proper interface coupling conditions. The predictions from such numerical models reveal flow, temperature and species fields, with which the evaporation, as well as combustion characteristics, ca...
1 CitationsSource
#1Soo-Young No (CBNU: Chungbuk National University)H-Index: 11
The main challenges for the development of internal combustion (IC) engines are the reduction of pollutant emissions and increase of thermal efficiency. To address both issues, particularly in compression ignition (CI) engines, there is strong interest to develop advanced CI engines with high efficiency and low particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions. In order to accomplish the advanced CI engines, long ignition delay is essentially required. There are many trials to extend the ignition delay ...
Source
#1Yu Zhang (HUST: Huazhong University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Ronghua Huang (HUST: Huazhong University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 12
Last. Tian Qin (HUST: Huazhong University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 1
view all 7 authors...
Abstract This work was aimed to study droplet combustion which was a foundation of spray combustion. Combustion characteristics of BUT00 (pure biodiesel) and BUT50 (50% n-butanol and 50% biodiesel by mass) were investigated using droplet suspension technology under 1 bar and 900 K. One flame was observed for BUT00 while two flames were observed for BUT50. The flame of BUT00 underwent successively faint luminosity, bright luminosity, soot aggregate and soot spread. The first flame of BUT50 was fa...
3 CitationsSource
#1S.I. Yang (NFU: National Formosa University)H-Index: 12
#2M.S. Wu (NFU: National Formosa University)H-Index: 6
Abstract The present study investigated the production procedure and combustion characteristics of a bio-oil produced through the slow pyrolysis of pinewood. The combustion properties of droplets with different butanol/bio-oil proportions were thus determined and compared. The droplets containing bio-oil varied irregularly in size during combustion and left considerable residue that was also combusted. The duration of combustion was revealed to increase when the bio-oil concentration was increas...
11 CitationsSource
#1Yachao Chang (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)H-Index: 12
#2Ming Jia (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)H-Index: 25
Last. Xie Mao-zhao (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)H-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Butanol has been recommended as an alternative for fossil fuels in the transport sector due to its potential for reducing pollutant emissions. Butanol has four isomers, i.e., n -butanol, s -butanol, i -butanol, and t -butanol. For the purpose of investigating the effect of molecular structure on the fuel kinetics of butanol, a skeletal mechanism containing 66 species and 196 reactions was constructed for the four butanol isomers using a decoupling methodology. The mechanism was validate...
11 CitationsSource