Match!

Childhood stunting: a global perspective.

Published on May 1, 2016in Maternal and Child Nutrition3.305
· DOI :10.1111/mcn.12231
Mercedes de Onis54
Estimated H-index: 54
(WHO: World Health Organization),
Francesco Branca31
Estimated H-index: 31
(WHO: World Health Organization)
Sources
Abstract
Childhood stunting is the best overall indicator of children's well-being and an accurate reflection of social inequalities. Stunting is the most prevalent form of child malnutrition with an estimated 161 million children worldwide in 2013 falling below −2 SD from the length-for-age/height-for-age World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. Many more millions suffer from some degree of growth faltering as the entire length-for-age/height-for-age z-score distribution is shifted to the left indicating that all children, and not only those falling below a specific cutoff, are affected. Despite global consensus on how to define and measure it, stunting often goes unrecognized in communities where short stature is the norm as linear growth is not routinely assessed in primary health care settings and it is difficult to visually recognize it. Growth faltering often begins in utero and continues for at least the first 2 years of post-natal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of multiple pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality, loss of physical growth potential, reduced neurodevelopmental and cognitive function and an elevated risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The severe irreversible physical and neurocognitive damage that accompanies stunted growth poses a major threat to human development. Increased awareness of stunting's magnitude and devastating consequences has resulted in its being identified as a major global health priority and the focus of international attention at the highest levels with global targets set for 2025 and beyond. The challenge is to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight and obesity at bay.
Figures & Tables
  • References (75)
  • Citations (150)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
201359.10The Lancet
11 Authors (Robert E Black, ..., Ricardo Uauy)
2,514 Citations
1,962 Citations
714 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References75
Newest
#1José Angel Villar Rivacoba (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 71
#2Francesca GiulianiH-Index: 16
Last. Stephen Kennedy (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 58
view all 18 authors...
Summary Background Charts of size at birth are used to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies on the assumption that extrauterine growth should mimic that in the uterus. Methods The INTERGROWTH-21 st Project assessed fetal, newborn, and postnatal growth in eight geographically defined populations, in which maternal health care and nutritional needs were met. From these populations, the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study selected low-risk women starting antenatal care before 14 weeks' gestati...
61 CitationsSource
#1Shelley McGuire (WSU: Washington State University)H-Index: 18
74 CitationsSource
#1Cesar G. VictoraH-Index: 110
#2Mercedes de OnisH-Index: 54
Last. Roger Shrimpton (Tulane University)H-Index: 20
view all 3 authors...
Dear Editor:The concept of standard deviations was first proposed by KarlPearson 120 y ago (1) to account for the fact that an absolutemeasure (e.g., in centimeters or kilograms) may have differentinterpretations depending on how much variability there iswithin a population. Had Pearson still been among us, he wouldnot be surprised by the findings of Leroy et al. (2)—namely,that conflicting results are produced when growth faltering isassessed in absolute (centimeters) or relative (z scores) scales...
5 CitationsSource
#1Andrew J. Prendergast (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 33
#2Jean H Humphrey ScD (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 39
205 CitationsSource
#1José Angel Villar Rivacoba (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 71
#2Aris T. Papageorghiou (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 54
Last. Stephen Kennedy (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 58
view all 18 authors...
Summary Background Large differences exist in size at birth and in rates of impaired fetal growth worldwide. The relative effects of nutrition, disease, the environment, and genetics on these differences are often debated. In clinical practice, various references are often used to assess fetal growth and newborn size across populations and ethnic origins, whereas international standards for assessing growth in infants and children have been established. In the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project, our aim ...
91 CitationsSource
#1José Angel Villar Rivacoba (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 71
#2L Cheikh Ismail (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 18
Last. Stephen Kennedy (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 58
view all 19 authors...
Summary Background In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. Methods INTERGROWTH-21 st is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were sele...
448 CitationsSource
#1Aris T. Papageorghiou (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 54
#2Eric O. Ohuma (University of Oxford)H-Index: 24
Last. José Angel Villar Rivacoba (Green Templeton College)H-Index: 71
view all 19 authors...
st Project, aimed to develop international growth and size standards for fetuses. Methods The multicentre, population-based FGLS assessed fetal growth in geographically defi ned urban populations in eight countries, in which most of the health and nutritional needs of mothers were met and adequate antenatal care was provided. We used ultrasound to take fetal anthropometric measurements prospectively from 14 weeks and 0 days of gestation until birth in a cohort of women with adequate health and n...
271 CitationsSource
#1Elizabeth A. Lundeen (Emory University)H-Index: 7
#2Jere R. Behrman (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 73
Last. Aryeh D. Stein (Emory University)H-Index: 59
view all 8 authors...
Objective We characterized post-infancy child growth patterns and determined the incidence of becoming stunted and of recovery from stunting.
64 CitationsSource
#1Jef L. Leroy (IFPRI: International Food Policy Research Institute)H-Index: 20
#2Marie T. Ruel (IFPRI: International Food Policy Research Institute)H-Index: 53
Last. Edward A. Frongillo (USC: University of South Carolina)H-Index: 65
view all 4 authors...
Growth faltering is usually assessed using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs), which has been used for comparisons of children of different age and sex composition across populations. Because the SD (denominator) for calculating HAZ increases with age, the usefulness of HAZs to assess changes in height over time (across ages) is uncertain. We posited that population-level changes in height as populations age should be assessed using absolute height-for-age differences (HADs) and not HAZs. We used da...
72 CitationsSource
#1Elizabeth A. Lundeen (University of the Witwatersrand)H-Index: 7
#2Aryeh D. Stein (University of the Witwatersrand)H-Index: 59
Last. Cesar G. Victora (UFPEL: Universidade Federal de Pelotas)H-Index: 110
view all 13 authors...
Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth a...
45 CitationsSource
Cited By150
Newest
Stunting, defined as linear growth retardation, is a serious public health problem in developing countries. We aimed to (1) describe the prevalence of stunting in Peruvian youth living in three geographical regions, and to (2) determine height and physical fitness (PF) differences between stunted and normal-growth children across age and sex. We sampled 7918 subjects (7074 normal-growth and 844 stunted), aged 6–15 year, from sea-level, Amazon and high-altitude regions of Peru. PF was assessed wi...
Source
#2Dulce E. Alarcón-Yaquetto (UPCH: Cayetano Heredia University)H-Index: 1
Last. Gustavo F. Gonzales (UPCH: Cayetano Heredia University)H-Index: 36
view all 6 authors...
Anemia diagnosis in populations residing at high altitude (HA) involves an adjustment of hemoglobin (Hb) values owing to the increase in its concentration with altitude. The suitability of the adjustment has been questioned since Hb concentrations depend on how adapted a population is to HA. In Peru, anemia in preschool children (PSC) is a matter of severe public concern for its high rates; in the city of Puno ( approximately 3800 MASL), for example, 67.7% of children under 3 years are diagnosed...
Source
Source
Malnutrition is one of the greatest health challenges that affects about 2 billion people globally. Multiple factors including poverty, food insecurity, maternal health and nutritional status, mother's age at marriage and educational status, low birthweight or small for gestational age (SGA), premature births, suboptimal breastfeeding practices, unhealthy dietary and lifestyle patterns, health and immunization status of children, socioeconomic status of family, environmental and household condit...
Source
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of child stunting is falling in Latin America, socioeconomic inequalities persist. However, there is limited evidence on ethnic disparities. We aimed to describe ethnic inequalities of stunting and feeding practices in thirteen Latin American countries using recent nationally representative surveys. METHODS: We analyzed national surveys carried out since 2006. Based on self-reported ethnicity, skin color or language, children were classified into three categor...
Source
#1Sheela S. Sinharoy (Emory University)H-Index: 4
#2Thomas Clasen (Emory University)H-Index: 41
Last. Reynaldo Martorell (Emory University)H-Index: 75
view all 3 authors...
Source
Introduction. Child stunting, which is a chronic length or height growth deficit, has been a devastating public health problem in developing countries. In Ethiopia, stunting remains severe public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children of 6–59 months. Methods. The community-based cross sectional study was conducted in the Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Southern Ethiopia. The simple random sampli...
Source
#1Alina GermanH-Index: 2
#2Gustavo S. Mesch (University of Haifa)H-Index: 29
Last. Zeev HochbergH-Index: 49
view all 3 authors...
Background: Height is considered an indicator of health and well-being of an individual and population. Height variation results from a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural influences. In order to understand the contribution of environmental stress associated with the child's growth, we correlated indicators of a stressful environment with adult height. Methods: We utilized seven equally weighted indicators of a stressful environment: homicide rates, GDP per...
Source
The double burden of malnutrition is still prevalent in South Africa, hence the importance of a dietary survey to identify risks of under- and over-nutrition. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied in two economically active provinces, Gauteng (GTG) (N = 733) and Western Cape (WC) (N = 593). Field workers completed questionnaires, and a 24 h recall with children taking part aged 1–<10-years (N = 1326). Important findings were that 71% and 74%, respectively, of 3–<6-ye...
Source
#1Erich Striessnig (CU: Capital University)
#1Erich Striessnig (CU: Capital University)H-Index: 7
Last. Jayanta Kumar Bora (CU: Capital University)
view all 2 authors...
Variation in human growth and the genetic and environmental factors that are influencing it have been described worldwide. The objective of this study is to assess the geographical variance of under-five nutritional status and its related covariates across Indian districts. We use the most recent fourth round of the Indian National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015–2016, which for the first time offers district level information. We employ principal component analysis (PCA) on the demograph...
Source