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Mycobacterial escape from macrophage phagosomes to the cytoplasm represents an alternate adaptation mechanism.

Published on Sep 1, 2016in Scientific Reports4.011
· DOI :10.1038/srep23089
Shilpa Jamwal6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Parul Mehrotra2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 3 AuthorsKanury V. S. Rao24
Estimated H-index: 24
Sources
Abstract
Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) within the host macrophage is mediated through pathogen-dependent inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, which enables bacteria to persist within the immature phagosomal compartment. By employing ultrastructural examination of different field isolates supported by biochemical analysis, we found that some of the Mtb strains were in fact poorly adapted for subsistence within endocytic vesicles of infected macrophages. Instead, through a mechanism involving activation of host cytosolic phospholipase A2, these bacteria rapidly escaped from phagosomes, and established residence in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Interestingly, by facilitating an enhanced suppression of host cellular autophagy, this translocation served as an alternate virulence acquisition mechanism. Thus, our studies reveal plasticity in the adaptation strategies employed by Mtb, for survival in the host macrophage.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (34)
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References36
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#1Annemieke Geluk (LUMC: Leiden University Medical Center)H-Index: 32
#2Krista E. van Meijgaarden (LUMC: Leiden University Medical Center)H-Index: 35
Last. Tom H. M. Ottenhoff (LUMC: Leiden University Medical Center)H-Index: 79
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In view of the fact that only a small part of the Mtb expressome has been explored for identification of antigens capable of activating human T-cell responses, which is critically required for the design of better TB vaccination strategies, more emphasis should be placed on innovative ways to discover new Mtb antigens and explore their function at the several stages of infection. Better protective antigens for TB vaccines are urgently needed, also in view of the disappointing results of the MVA8...
36 CitationsSource
#1Vladan Lucic (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 17
#2Alexander Rigort (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 13
Last. Wolfgang Baumeister (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 94
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Electron microscopy played a key role in establishing cell biology as a discipline, by producing fundamental insights into cellular organization and ultrastructure. Many seminal discoveries were made possible by the development of new sample preparation methods and imaging modalities. Recent technical advances include sample vitrification that faithfully preserves molecular structures, three-dimensional imaging by electron tomography, and improved image-processing methods. These new techniques h...
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#1Maria Podinovskaia (Cornell University)H-Index: 2
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Summary The phagosome is a central mediator of both the homeostatic and microbicidal functions of a macrophage. Following phagocytosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is able to establish infection through arresting phagosome maturation and avoiding the consequences of delivery to the lysosome. The infection of a macrophage by Mtb leads to marked changes in the behaviour of both the macrophage and the surrounding tissue as the bacterium modulates its environment to promote its survival. In thi...
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#1Shilpa JamwalH-Index: 6
#2Mukul Kumar MidhaH-Index: 4
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To probe how the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis controls host cellular death pathways, we compared mitochondrial responses in human macrophages infected either with the avirulent mycobacterial strain H37Ra, or its virulent counterpart H37Rv. Following H37Ra infection, induction of the apoptotic response was foreshadowed by the early suppression of stress-induced mitochondrial activity. In contrast, mitochondria in H37Rv-infected cells displayed robust activity with increased membrane potent...
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Autophagy is a cell biological pathway affecting immune responses. In vitro, autophagy acts as a cell-autonomous defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its role in vivo is unknown. Here we show that autophagy plays a dual role against tuberculosis: antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. M. tuberculosis infection of Atg5fl/fl LysM-Cre+ mice relative to autophagy-proficient littermates resulted in increased bacillary burden and excessive pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophil in...
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Summary Upon infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) metabolically alters the macrophage to create a niche that is ideally suited to its persistent lifestyle. Infected macrophages acquire a "foamy" phenotype characterized by the accumulation of lipid bodies (LBs), which serve as both a source of nutrients and a secure niche for the bacterium. While the functional significance of the foamy phenotype is appreciated, the biochemical pathways mediating this process are understudied. We found tha...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects lung macrophages, which instead of killing the pathogen can be manipulated by the bacilli, creating an environment suitable for intracellular replication and spread to adjacent cells. The role of host cell death during Mtb infection is debated because the bacilli have been shown to be both anti-apoptotic, keeping the host cell alive to avoid the antimicrobial effects of apoptosis, and pro-necrotic, killing the host macrophage to allow infection of neighbo...
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