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Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies.

Published on Feb 17, 2016in PLOS ONE 2.78
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0149546
Quentin S. Hanley22
Estimated H-index: 22
(NTU: Nottingham Trent University),
Dan Lewis1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Economic Policy Institute),
Haroldo V. Ribeiro14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UEM: Universidade Estadual de Maringá)
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Abstract
Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments.
  • References (39)
  • Citations (25)
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References39
Newest
Diego Rybski21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PIK: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research),
Dominik E. Reusser17
Estimated H-index: 17
(PIK: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research)
+ 3 AuthorsJürgen P Kropp1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PIK: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research)
Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying bet...
Published on May 1, 2017in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 3.39
Clémentine Cottineau5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UCL: University College London),
Erez Hatna12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Batty63
Estimated H-index: 63
(UCL: University College London)
Scaling laws are powerful summaries of the variations of urban attributes with city size. However, the validity of their universal meaning for cities is hampered by the observation that different scaling regimes can be encountered for the same territory, time and attribute, depending on the criteria used to delineate cities. The aim of this paper is to present new insights concerning this variation, coupled with a sensitivity analysis of urban scaling in France, for several socio-economic and in...
Luís M. A. Bettencourt31
Estimated H-index: 31
(SFI: Santa Fe Institute),
José Lobo20
Estimated H-index: 20
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expe...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of the Royal Society Interface 3.22
Hyejin Youn9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Oxford),
Lu 'is M. A. Bettencourt1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SFI: Santa Fe Institute)
+ 3 AuthorsGeoffrey B. West1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Oxford)
Understanding cities is central to addressing major global challenges from climate change to economic resilience. Although increasingly perceived as fundamental socio-economic units, the detailed fabric of urban economic activities is only recently accessible to comprehensive analyses with the availability of large datasets. Here, we study abundances of business categories across US metropolitan statistical areas, and provide a framework for measuring the intrinsic diversity of economic activiti...
Published on Jan 11, 2016in PLOS ONE 2.78
Anthony F. J. van Raan31
Estimated H-index: 31
(LEI: Leiden University),
Gerwin van der Meulen1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Willem Goedhart1
Estimated H-index: 1
We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations ...
Published on Dec 3, 2015in arXiv: Physics and Society
Markus Schläpfer8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Joey Lee1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Luís M. A. Bettencourt31
Estimated H-index: 31
The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy efficiency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world's cities continue to grow and develop, understanding the interplay between the characteristics of urban environments and the built form of cities is essential to achieve local and global sustainability goals. Here, we compile and analyze the most extensive data set of building shapes to date, covering more than 4.8 million individual buildin...
Published on Sep 10, 2015in PLOS ONE 2.78
Luiz G. A. Alves9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UEM: Universidade Estadual de Maringá),
R. S. Mendes23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UEM: Universidade Estadual de Maringá)
+ 1 AuthorsHaroldo V. Ribeiro14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UEM: Universidade Estadual de Maringá)
More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and sev...
Published on May 1, 2015in Scientific Reports 4.01
Erneson A. Oliveira7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
José S. Andrade5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Hernán A. Makse41
Estimated H-index: 41
We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total ...
Published on May 1, 2015in Scientific Reports 4.01
Hygor Piaget M. Melo3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
André A. Moreira16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 2 AuthorsJosé S. Andrade17
Estimated H-index: 17
By treating the suicide as a social fact, Durkheim envisaged that suicide rates should be determined by the connections between people and society. Under the same framework, he considered that crime is bound up with the fundamental conditions of all social life. The social effect on the occurrence of homicides has been previously substantiated, and confirmed here, in terms of a superlinear scaling relation: by doubling the population of a Brazilian city results in an average increment of 135% in...
Published on Apr 28, 2015in arXiv: Physics and Society
A. Paolo Masucci5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Elsa Arcaute8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 2 AuthorsMichael Batty63
Estimated H-index: 63
Urban morphology has presented significant intellectual challenges to mathematicians and physicists ever since the eighteenth century, when Euler first explored the famous Konigsberg bridges problem. Many important regularities and allometries have been observed in urban studies, including Zipf's law and Gibrat's law, rendering cities attractive systems for analysis within statistical physics. Nevertheless, a broad consensus on how cities and their boundaries are defined is still lacking. Applyi...
Cited By25
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Nature Communications 11.88
Haroldo V. Ribeiro14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UEM: Universidade Estadual de Maringá),
Diego Rybski21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PIK: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research),
Jürgen P. Kropp22
Estimated H-index: 22
(PIK: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research)
The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our result...
Gaurav Verma (ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Sanjeev Sharma11
Estimated H-index: 11
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
+ -3 AuthorsS. K. Chakrabarti4
Estimated H-index: 4
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
The goal of this study was to develop a fluorescent based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for a simple, sensitive and visual detection of P. infestans from tubers targeting a novel internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA. The ITS-1 LAMP primers were designed using the Primer Explorer V4 software. The optimization of LAMP reaction conditions and reagents concentrations were carried out with time, temperature, MgSO4, dNTPs and WarmStart Bst DNA polymerase....
Helena Vila Suárez7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Vigo),
Carmen Ferragut9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Alcalá)
ABSTRACTIts undeniable that throwing speed is one of the most important actions during handball match so it is really important for trainers to improve their knowledge about it. Thus, the aim of th...
Published on Jul 16, 2019
Clare Hanlon7
Estimated H-index: 7
(VU: Victoria University, Australia),
Claire Jenkin (University of Hertfordshire), Melinda Craike15
Estimated H-index: 15
(VU: Victoria University, Australia)
ABSTRACTPurpose: To examine the association between environmental attributes of facilities, female participation in sport and according to life stage.Design: Articles were identified through seven ...
Published on May 15, 2019in arXiv: Physics and Society
Uncovering the structure of socioeconomic systems and timely estimation of socioeconomic status are significant for economic development. The understanding of socioeconomic processes provides foundations to quantify global economic development, to map regional industrial structure, and to infer individual socioeconomic status. In this review, we will make a brief manifesto about a new interdisciplinary research field named Computational Socioeconomics, followed by detailed introduction about dat...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.41
Dara E. Babinski14
Estimated H-index: 14
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Autumn Kujawa19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
+ 2 AuthorsDaniel N. Klein72
Estimated H-index: 72
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
Many youth with ADHD experience peer difficulties, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain unknown. Very little work has examined neurophysiological measures of social feedback processing in relation to ADHD symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine associations of ADHD symptoms with indicators of sensitivity to social feedback in a laboratory task and self-report of rejection sensitivity. A large community sample of 10- to 15-year-old adolescents (N = 391; Mage = 12.64, 48.6...
Published on Mar 20, 2019in Cogent engineering
Rosa Angela Fabio8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UNIME: University of Messina),
Giancarlo Iannizzotto10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UNIME: University of Messina)
+ 1 AuthorsTindara Caprì3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UNIME: University of Messina)
AbstractAfter the introduction of mobile computing devices, the way people listen to music has changed considerably. Although there is a broad scientific consensus on the fact that people show music preferences and make music choices based on their feelings and emotions, the sources of such preferences and choices are still debated. The main aim of this study is to understand whether listening in ecological (mobile) contexts differs from listening in non-mobile contexts in terms of the elicited ...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in arXiv: Physics and Society
Eszter Bokányi3
Estimated H-index: 3
(ELTE: Eötvös Loránd University),
Dániel Kondor6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Gábor Vattay19
Estimated H-index: 19
Scaling properties of language are a useful tool for understanding generative processes in texts. We investigate the scaling relations in citywise Twitter corpora coming from the Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States. We observe a slightly superlinear urban scaling with the city population for the total volume of the tweets and words created in a city. We then find that a certain core vocabulary follows the scaling relationship of that of the bulk text, but most wo...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in arXiv: Computers and Society
Marcos Oliveira3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Ronaldo Menezes13
Estimated H-index: 13
Though crime is linked to different socio-economic factors, it exhibits remarkable regularities regardless of cities' particularities. In this chapter, we consider two fundamental regularities in crime regarding two essential aspects of criminal activity: time and space. For more than one century, we know that (1) crime occurs unevenly within a city and (2) crime peaks during specific times of the year. Here we describe the tendency of crime to concentrate spatially and to exhibit temporal regul...