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Sprinkler Irrigation Droplet Dynamics. I: Review and Theoretical Development

Published on May 1, 2016in Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-asce1.34
· DOI :10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001003
D. Zerihun7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UA: University of Arizona),
Charles A. Sanchez24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UA: University of Arizona),
Arthur W. Warrick29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UA: University of Arizona)
Source
Abstract
AbstractDroplet dynamics simulations are key to predicting sprinkler irrigation precipitation patterns. This paper includes derivations of equations describing droplet motion through a steady, uniform horizontal airflow (wind). The assumptions on which sprinkler irrigation droplet dynamics is based are stated, and the limitations they entail are highlighted. The motion of droplets is treated as an impulsively started accelerated motion of rigid spheres, originating at the sprinkler nozzle with known initial conditions, and involving no interactions between themselves. The following steps are used in the derivation of pertinent equations. First, the forces that the ambient air exerts on a water droplet undergoing a steady or accelerated rectilinear relative motion are defined, and their significance in the context of sprinkler irrigation droplet dynamics is discussed, based on which relevant equations are derived. This is followed by a discussion on the dynamics of accelerated motion of a water droplet thr...
  • References (26)
  • Citations (4)
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References26
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#1D. Zerihun (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
#2Charles A. Sanchez (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 24
Last. Arthur W. Warrick (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 29
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AbstractA system of equations, with strong physical basis, was derived for sprinkler irrigation droplet dynamics in the companion paper. Numerical solution of these equations and model evaluation is discussed in this paper. With the aim of enhancing computational efficiency and robustness, the droplet dynamics equations were scaled using four characteristic variables: characteristic time, length, velocity, and density. The characteristic time, length, and velocity are derived based on considerat...
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The characterization of drops resulting from impact sprinkler irrigation has been addressed by a number of techniques. In this article, a new technique based on low-speed photography (1/100 s) is presented and validated. The technique permits to directly measure drop diameter, velocity and angle. The photographic technique was applied to the characterization of drops resulting from an isolated sprinkler equipped with a 4.8 mm nozzle and operating at a pressure of 200 kPa. Sprinkler performance w...
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#1J. BurgueteH-Index: 18
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Pressurized irrigation is quickly replacing surface irrigation systems in Spain due to the impulse of irrigation modernization programs. The change in irrigation system is resulting in reduced labour and increased irrigation efficiency and crop yield. The main constraint for sprinkler irrigation is the wind, which severely reduces irrigation uniformity and increases evaporation water losses. Many areas of Spain are characterized by strong winds, and therefore require specific design and manageme...
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#1Georges Jourdan (University of Provence)H-Index: 15
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The drag coefficient of a sphere placed in a non-stationary flow is studied experimentally over a wide range of Reynolds numbers in subsonic and supersonic flows. Experiments were conducted in a shock tube where the investigated balls were suspended, far from all the tube walls, on a very thin wire taken from a spider web. During each experiment, many shadowgraph photos were taken to enable an accurate construction of the sphere9s trajectory. Based on the sphere9s trajectory, its drag coefficien...
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1. Introduction 2. Isolated spherically symmetric droplet vaporization and heating 3. Convective droplet vaporization, heating, and acceleration 4. Multicomponent liquid droplets 5. Droplet behavior at near-critical, transcritical, and supercritical conditions 6. Droplet arrays and groups 7. Spray equations 8. Computational issues 9. Spray applications 10. Spray interactions with turbulence and vortical structures 11. Film vaporization 12. Stability of liquid streams.
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The existing model equations governing the accelerated motion of a spherical particle are examined and their predictions compared with the results of the numerical solution of the full Navier–Stokes equations for unsteady, axisymmetric flow around a freely moving sphere injected into an initially stationary or oscillating fluid. The comparison for the particle Reynolds number in the range of 2 to 150 and the particle to fluid density ratio in the range of 5 to 200 indicates that the existing equ...
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A set of drop size distribution data is presented covering a wide range of sprinkler types including single nozzle impact sprinklers with straight bore and square nozzles, and sprayheads with various types of deflector plates. Drop sizes were measured by the laser-optical method and comparisons with other types of drop size measurement techniques are presented. Distributions are parameterized with an exponential function, and a method is provided to estimate the parameters given the sprinkler ty...
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#1Suresh K. Aggarwal (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 35
#2F. Peng (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 2
The present paper reviews the methodologies for representing the droplet motion and vaporization history in two-phase flow computations. The focus is on the use of droplet models that are realistic in terms of their efficient implementation in comprehensive spray simulations, representation of important physical processes, and applicability under a broad range of conditions. The methodologies available at present to simulate droplet motion in complex two-phase flows may be broadly classified int...
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#2Borja Latorre (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 11
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Abstract Simulation models of sprinkler irrigation are a valuable tool to improve the irrigation water management at plot scale. Ballistic theory has been commonly used to simulate drop dynamics in sprinkler irrigation models. A number of experiments on sprinkler irrigation performed in previous studies in the Ebro Valley Spain were analyzed and integrated in a data base. The evaluations were performed on six sprinkler types with different nozzle sizes, operating pressures under different meteor...
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Last. Borja LatorreH-Index: 1
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Spray sprinklers enable to operate at low pressures (<103 kPa) in self-propelled irrigation machines. A number of experiments were performed to characterize the water distribution pattern of an isolated rotator spray plate sprinkler operating at very low pressure under different experimental conditions. The experiments were performed under two pressures (69 kPa and 103 kPa) and in calm and windy conditions. The energy losses due to the impact of the out-going jet with the sprinkler plate were me...
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#2Sérgio D. N. Lourenço (HKU: University of Hong Kong)H-Index: 12
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Soil-composing particles undergo wettability changes, impacting hydraulic and mechanical processes such as erosion and landslides. Such processes evolve at very small scales, typically at the particle level. Here we capture the evolution of liquid interfaces in a single particle and several particles with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. The paper presents a three-dimensional LB study on the droplet dynamics on a layer of uniformly packed spherical particles with varying size and intrinsic con...
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#1D. Zerihun (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
#2Charles A. Sanchez (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 24
Last. Arthur W. Warrick (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 29
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AbstractA system of equations, with strong physical basis, was derived for sprinkler irrigation droplet dynamics in the companion paper. Numerical solution of these equations and model evaluation is discussed in this paper. With the aim of enhancing computational efficiency and robustness, the droplet dynamics equations were scaled using four characteristic variables: characteristic time, length, velocity, and density. The characteristic time, length, and velocity are derived based on considerat...
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