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The association between dietary saturated fatty acids and ischemic heart disease depends on the type and source of fatty acid in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Netherlands cohort

Published on Feb 1, 2016in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
· DOI :10.3945/ajcn.115.122671
Jaike Praagman3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University),
Joline W.J. Beulens48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 4 AuthorsY. T. van der Schouw88
Estimated H-index: 88
(UU: Utrecht University)
Abstract
Background: The association between saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk is debated. Objective: We sought to investigate whether dietary SFAs were associated with IHD risk and whether associations depended on 1) the substituting macronutrient, 2) the carbon chain length of SFAs, and 3) the SFA food source. Design: Baseline (1993-1997) SFA intake was measured with a foodfrequency questionnaire among 35,597 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort. IHD risks were estimated with multivariable Cox regression for the substitution of SFAs with other macronutrients and for higher intakes of total SFAs, individual SFAs, and SFAs from different food sources. Results: During 12 y of follow-up, 1807 IHD events occurred. Total SFA intake was associated with a lower IHD risk (HR per 5% of energy: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). Substituting SFAs with animal protein, cis monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or carbohydrates was significantly associated with higher IHD risks (HR per 5% of energy: 1.27-1.37). Slightly lower IHD risks were observed for higher intakes of the sum of butyric (4:0) through capric (10:0) acid (HRSD: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99), myristic acid (14:0) (HRSD: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97), the sum of pentadecylic (15:0) and margaric (17:0) acid (HRSD: 0.91: 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99), and for SFAs from dairy sources, including butter (HRSD: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), cheese (HRSD: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97), and milk and milk products (HRSD: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97). Conclusions: In this Dutch population, higher SFA intake was not associated with higher IHD risks. The lower IHD risk observed did not depend on the substituting macronutrient but appeared to be driven mainly by the sums of butyric through capric acid, the sum of pentadecylic and margaric acid, myristic acid, and SFAs from dairy sources. Residual confounding by cholesterol-lowering therapy and trans fat or limited variation in SFA and PUFA intake may explain our findings. Analyses need to be repeated in populations with larger differences in SFA intake and different SFA food sources.
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  • References (36)
  • Citations (63)
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References36
Newest
Published on Oct 6, 2015in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16.83
Yanping Li43
Estimated H-index: 43
,
Adela Hruby18
Estimated H-index: 18
+ 8 AuthorsBarry M. Popkin319
Estimated H-index: 319
Background The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk.
116 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16.83
Yanping Li43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Harvard University),
Adela Hruby18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Harvard University)
+ 8 AuthorsBarry M. Popkin319
Estimated H-index: 319
(Harvard University)
Abstract Background The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Objectives This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Methods We followed 84,628 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,9...
138 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 11, 2015in BMJ 23.56
Russell J. de Souza35
Estimated H-index: 35
,
Andrew Mente30
Estimated H-index: 30
(McMaster University)
+ 8 AuthorsJoseph Beyene61
Estimated H-index: 61
(McMaster University)
Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliogra...
336 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 10, 2015in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 6.75
Lee Hooper51
Estimated H-index: 51
(UEA: University of East Anglia),
Nicole Martin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Lond: University of London)
+ 1 AuthorsGeorge Davey-Smith177
Estimated H-index: 177
(UoB: University of Bristol)
Background Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats that are lost in the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. This review is part of a series split from and updating an overarching review. Objectives To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO),...
138 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 28, 2014in Circulation 18.88
Maryam Sadat Farvid1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services),
Ming Ding10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Harvard University)
+ 5 AuthorsFrank B. Hu202
Estimated H-index: 202
(Harvard University)
Background—Previous studies on intake of linoleic acid (LA), the predominant n-6 fatty acid, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk have generated inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize the evidence regarding the relation of dietary LA intake and CHD risk. Methods and Results—We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through June 2013 for prospective cohort studies that reported the association between dietary LA and CHD ...
179 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2014in Nutrition Bulletin
E. Papadopoulou2
Estimated H-index: 2
(British Nutrition Foundation),
S. Stanner15
Estimated H-index: 15
(British Nutrition Foundation)
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2014in European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 4.54
Gerben Hulsegge6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UU: Utrecht University),
H. Susan J. Picavet16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 5 AuthorsW. M. Monique Verschuren53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UU: Utrecht University)
BackgroundThe health of the elderly of the future is partly determined by their exposure to metabolic risk factors during their life course. Our aim is to study generation shifts in metabolic risk factors.DesignCohort study.MethodsWe used data of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, that started in 1987–1991 and had follow-up examinations after 6, 11, and 16 years (n = 6377). The analyses were stratified by sex and generation, i.e. 10-year age groups (20–29, 30–39, 40–49, and 50–59 years) at baseline. W...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 18, 2014in Annals of Internal Medicine 19.38
Rajiv Chowdhury47
Estimated H-index: 47
,
Samantha Warnakula9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 11 AuthorsSimon G. Thompson95
Estimated H-index: 95
Primary Funding Source: British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Cambridge National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, and Gates Cambridge.
606 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Circulation 18.88
Maryam S. Farvid27
Estimated H-index: 27
,
Ming Ding10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 5 AuthorsFrank B. Hu202
Estimated H-index: 202
150 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 4, 2013in BMJ 23.56
Christopher E. Ramsden16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill),
Daisy Zamora11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
+ 6 AuthorsJoseph R. Hibbeln46
Estimated H-index: 46
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. Design Evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study, a single blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial conducted in 1966-73; and an updated meta-analysis including these previously missing data. Setting Ambulatory, coronary care clinic in Sydney, Australia. Participants 458 men aged 30-59 years with a...
289 Citations Source Cite
Cited By63
Newest
Published on Feb 28, 2019in Systematic Reviews
Kimi Sawada2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Nagoya Women's University),
Koji Wada (International University of Health and Welfare)+ 3 AuthorsRintaro Mori45
Estimated H-index: 45
Background As with food-taxation strategies, such interventions as discounted healthy menus, point-of-purchase advertisements, and sugar-free beverages for employees at worksites could help prevent obesity. This study assessed the effectiveness of food environment interventions incorporating financial incentive or social marketing strategies at workplace cafeterias, vending machines, and kiosks toward preventing obesity and improving dietary habits.
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Published on Apr 6, 2019in Lipids in Health and Disease 2.66
Yongjian Zhu (Zhengzhou University), Yacong Bo (Zhengzhou University), Yanhua Liu (Zhengzhou University)
Background Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary fat intake and cardiovascular disease. However, dietary recommendations based on systematic review and meta-analysis might be more credible.
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Published on May 16, 2019in Nature Reviews Cardiology 15.16
Jason H.Y. Wu33
Estimated H-index: 33
(The George Institute for Global Health),
Renata Micha37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Tufts University),
Dariush Mozaffarian113
Estimated H-index: 113
(Tufts University)
The effect of dietary fats on cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has generated tremendous interest. Many earlier investigations focused on total fat and conventional fat classes (such as saturated and unsaturated fats) and their influence on a limited number of risk factors. However, dietary fats comprise heterogeneous molecules with diverse structures, and growing research in the past two decades supports correspondingly complex health effe...
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Published on May 1, 2019in Journal of Dairy Science 2.75
ABSTRACT Consumption of specific fatty acids (FA) that are synthesized in the mammary gland, namely de novo FA, has implications for human health. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to study the associations between milk fat content of de novo FA, with (1) diet composition, and (2) milk production and composition. Milk FA data from 96 peer-reviewed studies published between 1990 and 2016 that included 324 treatment means from 83 bovine experiments, 36 treatment means from 12 caprine ...
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Published on Apr 1, 2019in Food and Bioprocess Technology 3.00
Franco Emanuel Vasile4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Ana María Romero5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 1 AuthorsM. F. Mazzobre3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires)
This work explores the physicochemical, nutritional, and stability aspects of a meat product enriched with fish oil encapsulated in polyelectrolyte beads. Particularly, a non-conventional exudate gum obtained from Prosopis alba tree (G) was assessed as wall component of alginate-chitosan beads. Patty-type products based on beef (gluteus medius) and pork back fat (P) were nutritionally improved by adding free fish oil (P+FO), fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan (P+ACh), or alginate-gum-chi...
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Published on Apr 1, 2019in European Journal of Nutrition 4.42
Shengxin Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UU: Utrecht University),
Y. T. van der Schouw88
Estimated H-index: 88
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 2 AuthorsIvonne Sluijs28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UU: Utrecht University)
Purpose The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2019in International Journal of Cardiology 4.03
Jaike Praagman3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University),
Linda E.T. Vissers3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 8 AuthorsMarianne Uhre Jakobsen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark)
Abstract Background The effect of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on serum cholesterol levels depends on their carbon-chain length. Whether the association with myocardial infarction (MI) also differs across individual SFAs is unclear. We examined the association between consumption of individual SFAs, differing in chain lengths ranging from 4 through 18 carbons, and risk of MI. Methods We used data from 22,050 and 53,375 participants from EPIC-Norfolk (UK) and EPIC-Denmark, respectively...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 28, 2019in British Journal of Nutrition 3.66
Tian Hu12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
David R. Jacobs143
Estimated H-index: 143
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
+ 2 AuthorsLyn M. Steffen53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
The evidence linking low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) to CVD is controversial, and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relationship between LCD patterns and coronary artery Ca (CAC) scores from computed tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Our sample included 5614 men and women free of clinical CVD at baseline (2000–2002), who had a FFQ, a baseline measure and ≥1 measure of CAC during follow-up. We excluded those with implausible e...
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