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Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

Published on Aug 1, 2016in Conservation Biology 5.89
· DOI :10.1111/cobi.12656
Jan Christian Habel25
Estimated H-index: 25
(TUM: Technische Universität München),
Andreas Segerer1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 3 AuthorsThomas Schmitt26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Abstract
Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies.
  • References (41)
  • Citations (32)
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References41
Newest
Published on Dec 12, 2014in Science 41.06
Jeff Ollerton34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Northampton),
Hilary E. Erenler3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Northampton)
+ 1 AuthorsRobin G M Crockett14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Northampton)
It is increasingly recognized that many pollinator populations are declining. Ollerton et al. looked at British historical distribution records for bees and flower-visiting wasps across the past century. Though it is well known that agricultural intensification after World War II had a negative impact on many species, pollinator declines began in the decades preceding this time, when other changes were made to agricultural practices and policies. Science , this issue p. [1360][1] [1]: /lookup/vo...
114 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Journal of Insect Conservation 1.56
Daniela Polic1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Vienna),
Konrad Fiedler42
Estimated H-index: 42
(University of Vienna)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrea Grill12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Vienna)
Dispersal is a crucial feature for the long-term survival of metapopulations. Each individual that leaves the habitat and enters the matrix takes a risk. Consequently, even winged organisms, like butterflies, are often extremely sedentary and spend much of their lifetime in very restricted areas. For such species, large roads may be a serious obstacle for movement. Here, we aim to study if a large and highly frequented road in an alpine environment hinders the movement of relatively sedentary bu...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 24, 2013in Insects
Jon Mark Scriber1
Estimated H-index: 1
Comprising 50%–75% of the world’s fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may ge...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2013in European Journal of Entomology 1.02
Katharina J. Filz5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Martin Wiemers16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 2 AuthorsThomas Schmitt31
Estimated H-index: 31
Invertebrate diversity has rapidly declined throughout Europe during the last century. Various reasons for this decrease have been proposed including human induced factors like climate change. Temperature changes alter distributions and occurrences of butterflies by determining habitat conditions at different scales. We evaluated changes in the composition of butterfly communi- ties recorded at nine areas of fallow ground in south-western Germany in 1973, 1986, 2010 and 2012 using Pollard's tran...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Biodiversity and Conservation 2.83
Katharina J. Filz5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Jan O. Engler14
Estimated H-index: 14
+ 2 AuthorsThomas Schmitt31
Estimated H-index: 31
Butterflies are strongly declining on grassland habitats of Central Europe. Therefore, the success of conservation measures on high quality grassland habitats is controversially discussed. We compared the changes in butterfly diversity and community structure on six managed calcareous grasslands with eight unmanaged vineyard fallows. We obtained strong losses of species diversity and remarkable shifts of community compositions on both habitat types. However, the changes on vineyard fallows were ...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 2, 2013in Science 41.06
Jessica L. Blois20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCM: University of California, Merced),
Phoebe L. Zarnetske13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Yale University)
+ 1 AuthorsSeth Finnegan21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of California, Berkeley)
Biotic interactions drive key ecological and evolutionary processes and mediate ecosystem responses to climate change. The direction, frequency, and intensity of biotic interactions can in turn be altered by climate change. Understanding the complex interplay between climate and biotic interactions is thus essential for fully anticipating how ecosystems will respond to the fast rates of current warming, which are unprecedented since the end of the last glacial period. We highlight episodes of cl...
275 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2012in Basic and Applied Ecology 2.14
Bettina Augenstein2
Estimated H-index: 2
(AMNH: American Museum of Natural History),
Werner Ulrich29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UMK: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń),
Jan Christian Habel25
Estimated H-index: 25
(AMNH: American Museum of Natural History)
Oligotrophic calcareous grasslands are among the most species-rich habitats in temperate Europe. Land use changes caused a severe decline of these species-rich grasslands over the last decades. Today, these ecosystems exist as highly isolated and small remnants being threatened by abandonment, afforestation and the transformation into agricultural land. Local conservation activities caused changes in habitat structures within such oligotrophic calcareous grasslands and their often isolated chara...
11 Citations Source Cite
Carrie A. Schloss3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Tristan A. Nuñez4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Joshua J. Lawler41
Estimated H-index: 41
As they have in response to past climatic changes, many species will shift their distributions in response to modern climate change. However, due to the unprecedented rapidity of projected climatic changes, some species may not be able to move their ranges fast enough to track shifts in suitable climates and associated habitats. Here, we investigate the ability of 493 mammals to keep pace with projected climatic changes in the Western Hemisphere. We modeled the velocities at which species will l...
232 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 14, 2012in Nature and Conservation 1.37
Chris van Swaay23
Estimated H-index: 23
,
Sue Collins7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 12 AuthorsJeremy A. Thomas36
Estimated H-index: 36
Twenty-nine butterfly species are listed on the Annexes of the Habitats Directive. To assist everyone who wants or needs to take action for one of these species, we compiled an overview of the habitat requirements and ecology of each species, as well as information on their conservation status in Europe. This was taken from the recent Red List and their main biogeographical regions (taken from the first reporting on Article 17 of the Directive). Most important are the Dos and Don`ts, which summa...
34 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Oikos 3.71
Nicholas J. Gotelli63
Estimated H-index: 63
(UVM: University of Vermont),
Werner Ulrich29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UVM: University of Vermont)
This review identifies several important challenges in null model testing in ecology: 1) developing randomization algorithms that generate appropriate patterns for a specified null hypothesis; these randomization algorithms stake out a middle ground between formal Pearson–Neyman tests (which require a fully-specified null distribution) and specific process-based models (which require parameter values that cannot be easily and independently estimated); 2) developing metrics that specify a particu...
127 Citations Source Cite
Cited By32
Newest
Published on Apr 3, 2019in Scientific Reports 4.12
Jan Christian Habel2
Estimated H-index: 2
(TUM: Technische Universität München),
Andreas Segerer1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsThomas Schmitt26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Species composition strongly depends on time, place and resources. In this context, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitats of Europe, and succession may eventually cause local extinction of typical grassland species, but conversely increase species richness due to habitat diversification. Here, we analyse potential effects of succession of calcareous grasslands on moths. Our studied community, assessed over three decades in south-eastern Germany, comprised >1000 species...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in Biological Conservation 4.66
Arco J. van Strien22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Statistics Netherlands),
Chris van Swaay23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Butterfly Conservation)
+ 2 AuthorsMichiel F. WallisDeVries24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Butterfly Conservation)
Abstract Opportunistic butterfly records from 1890 to 2017 were analysed to quantitatively estimate the overall long-term change in occurrence of butterfly species in the Netherlands. For 71 species, we assessed trends in the number of occupied 5 km × 5 km sites by applying a modified List Length method, which takes into account changes in observation effort. We summarised the species trends in a Multi-Species Indicator (MSI) by taking the geometric mean of the species indices. Between 1890–1930...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 11, 2019in Animal Conservation 2.89
J. C. Habel (TUM: Technische Universität München), M. M. Gossner , Thomas Schmitt26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Source Cite
Published on May 3, 2019in Nature and Conservation 1.37
Cristiana Cerrato4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Emanuel Rocchia1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsR. Viterbi4
Estimated H-index: 4
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Published on May 1, 2019in Biodiversity and Conservation 2.83
Jan Christian Habel2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Salzburg),
Michael J. Samways37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Stellenbosch University),
Thomas Schmitt26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Severe decline in terrestrial insect species richness, abundance, flying biomass, and local extinctions across Europe are cause for alarm. Here, we summarize this decline, and identify species affected most. We then focus on the species that might respond best to mitigation measures relative to their traits. We review apparent drivers of decline, and critically reflect on strengths and weaknesses of existing studies, while emphasising their general significance. Generality of recent scientific f...
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Published on May 1, 2019in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
Zachary M. Portman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USU: Utah State University),
Vincent J. Tepedino18
Estimated H-index: 18
(USU: Utah State University),
Amber D. Tripodi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(USU: Utah State University)
Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Journal of Insect Conservation 1.56
Vladimír Vrabec6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CULS: Czech University of Life Sciences Prague),
Terezie Bubová3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CULS: Czech University of Life Sciences Prague)
+ 2 AuthorsPiotr NowickiVladimir20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Jagiellonian University)
In the Czech Republic, the scarce fritillary (Euphydryas maturna) had been considered extinct until the rediscovery of an extant population in Domanovický les, Central Bohemia. Subsequent efforts to protect the locality were thwarted by disputes between landowners and researchers. In 2010, when the population size was reaching critically low levels, appropriate management was finally established at the locality. To evaluate the current status of the population, an intensive mark-release-recaptur...
1 Citations Source Cite