Gait Speed Predicts Incident Disability: A Pooled Analysis

Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journals of Gerontology Series A-biological Sciences and Medical Sciences4.71
· DOI :10.1093/gerona/glv126
Subashan Perera44
Estimated H-index: 44
(University of Pittsburgh),
Kushang V. Patel42
Estimated H-index: 42
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 12 AuthorsStephanie A. Studenski72
Estimated H-index: 72
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Background. Functional independence with aging is an important goal for individuals and society. Simple prognostic indicators can inform health promotion and care planning, but evidence is limited by heterogeneity in measures of function. Methods. We performed a pooled analysis of data from seven studies of 27,220 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 or older with baseline gait speed, followed for disability and mortality. Outcomes were incident inability or dependence on another person in bathing or dressing; and difficulty walking ¼ – ½ mile or climbing 10 steps within 3 years. Results. Participants with faster baseline gait had lower rates of incident disability. In subgroups (defined by 0.2 m/s-wide intervals from <0.4 to ≥1.4 m/s) with increasingly greater gait speed, 3-year rates of bathing or dressing dependence trended from 10% to 1% in men, and from 15% to 1% in women, while mobility difficulty trended from 47% to 4% in men and 40% to 6% in women. The age-adjusted relative risk ratio per 0.1 m/s greater speed for bathing or dressing dependence in men was 0.68 (0.57–0.81) and in women: 0.74 (0.66– 0.82); for mobility difficulty, men: 0.75 (0.68–0.82), women: 0.73 (0.67–0.80). Results were similar for combined disability and mortality. Effects were largely consistent across subgroups based on age, gender, race, body mass index, prior hospitalization, and selected chronic conditions. In the presence of multiple other risk factors for disability, gait speed significantly increased the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Conclusion. In older adults, gait speed predicts 3 year incidence of bathing or dressing dependence, mobility difficulty, and a composite outcome of disability and mortality.
  • References (42)
  • Citations (91)
Subashan Perera44
Estimated H-index: 44
Stephanie A. Studenski72
Estimated H-index: 72
+ 4 AuthorsMarjolein Visser76
Estimated H-index: 76
(VU: VU University Amsterdam)
Background: Meaningful change criteria help determine if function has improved or declined, but their magnitudes may vary across clinically relevant subgroups. We estimate meaningful decline in four common measures of physical performance in subgroups of older adults based on initial performance, demographics, chronic conditions, and health status. Methods: We used baseline (Year 1) and Year 4 data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study, a well-functioning cohort at basel...
Published on Jun 18, 2014in JAMA51.27
Marco Pahor95
Estimated H-index: 95
(UF: University of Florida),
Jack M. Guralnik140
Estimated H-index: 140
(UF: University of Florida)
+ 16 AuthorsErik J. Groessl23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Importance In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining whether physical activity prevents or delays mobility disability. Objective To test the hypothesis that a long-term structured physical activity program is more effective than a health education program (als...
John B. Burch1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NIH: National Institutes of Health),
Alison Deckhut Augustine2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 15 AuthorsFrancesca Macchiarini3
Estimated H-index: 3
Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in human history, and the 21st century will witness even more rapid aging than did the century just past. Improvements in public health and medicine are having a profound effect on population demographics worldwide. By 2017, there will be more people over the age of 65 than under age 5, and by 2050, two billion of the estimated nine billion people on Earth will be older than 60 ( Although we can reasonably expect...
Published on May 28, 2014in JAMA51.27
Steve Cummings152
Estimated H-index: 152
(CPMC: California Pacific Medical Center),
Stephanie A. Studenski72
Estimated H-index: 72
(NIH: National Institutes of Health),
Luigi Ferruci142
Estimated H-index: 142
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Slow gait limits independence, decreases quality of life, and is associated with an increased risk of disability, hospitalization, placement in long-term care,1,2 and accelerated clinical progression of many chronic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and dementia. Slow gait speed is also a predictor of all-cause mortality.3 Measuring gait speed is simple, quick, reproducible, inexpensive, and feasible in clinical settings. These charact...
Published on May 1, 2014in Journal of Nutrition Health & Aging2.66
Stephanie A. Studenski72
Estimated H-index: 72
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Effective health care for older adults must attend to not only proper prevention and management of acute and chronic disease, but also to the unique health-related problems of late life. Health and functional difficulties in late life are characterized by multiple interacting age-related alterations in cells and organ systems. Often described within the conceptual framework of “frailty”, these complex health problems demand a new approach from the health care system that involves recognition, ev...
Robbert J. J. Gobbens19
Estimated H-index: 19
M.A.L.M. van Assen22
Estimated H-index: 22
Frailty is a predictor of disability. A proper understanding of the contribution of individual indicators of frailty in the prediction of disability is a requisite for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of the individual physical frailty indicators: gait speed, physical activity, hand grip strength, Body Mass Index (BMI), fatigue, and balance, for ADL and IADL disability. The sample consisted of 505 community-dwelling persons (≥75 years, respons...
Published on May 1, 2013in Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics2.61
Gro Idland5
Estimated H-index: 5
(HiOA: Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences),
Renate Pettersen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Oslo University Hospital)
+ 1 AuthorsAstrid Bergland23
Estimated H-index: 23
(HiOA: Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract Disability in ADL of aging women is an important public health concern. It is thus of interest to identify modifiable factors underlying onset of ADL disability. We assessed whether three physical performance-based measurements could predict ADL disability 9 years later. The participants were 113 non-disabled community-dwelling women with a mean age of 79.5 years at baseline. The baseline examinations of physical performance were: functional reach, climbing steps and comfortable walking...
Published on Jan 1, 2013in Experimental Gerontology3.08
James L. Kirkland53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Mayo Clinic)
Abstract Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work is needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trial paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measurin...
Christine M. McDonough15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Dartmouth College),
Feng Tian8
Estimated H-index: 8
(BU: Boston University)
+ 4 AuthorsAlan M. Jette73
Estimated H-index: 73
(BU: Boston University)
Disability associated with aging is a major issue facing American society (1). Rising numbers of older adults in the population increases the burden of disability and has major implications for the quality of life of older adults and their families, rising health care costs and related resource utilization (1). Understanding the process of disablement for older adults is critical for a wide range of stakeholders. Several important developments have advanced the fundamental tools available for th...
Published on Jan 17, 2012in Annals of Internal Medicine19.32
Thomas M. Gill67
Estimated H-index: 67
(Yale University),
Evelyne A. Gahbauer22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 2 AuthorsHeather G. Allore42
Estimated H-index: 42
Background: Relatively little is known about why older persons develop long-term disability in community mobility. Objective: To identify the risk factors and precipitants for long-term disability in walking a quarter mile and driving a car. Design: Prospective cohort study from March 1998 to December 2009. Setting: Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants: 641 persons, aged 70 years or older, who were active drivers or nondisabled in walking a quarter mile. Persons who were physically frail...
Cited By91
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Association between spatial gait parameters and adverse health outcomes in the elderly has not been sufficiently studied. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the stride length or the step width predict falls, functional loss and mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study on a probabilistic sample of 431 noninstitutionalized, older-than-64-years subjects living in Spain, who were followed-up for five years. In the baseline visit, spatial gait parameters were recorded along with ...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in BMC Geriatrics2.82
Ronny Bergquist2
Estimated H-index: 2
Michaela Weber1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Heidelberg University)
+ 4 AuthorsKristin Taraldsen9
Estimated H-index: 9
Background Many balance and strength tests exist that have been designed for older seniors, often aged ≥70 years. To guide strategies for preventing functional decline, valid and reliable tests are needed to detect early signs of functional decline in young seniors. Currently, little is known about which tests are being used in young seniors and their methodological quality. This two-step review aims to 1) identify commonly used tests of balance and strength, and 2) evaluate their measurement pr...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in BMC Geriatrics2.82
Kristin Franzon2
Estimated H-index: 2
Björn Zethelius45
Estimated H-index: 45
+ 1 AuthorsLena Kilander30
Estimated H-index: 30
Background Preserved functions of daily life and cognition are cornerstones of independent aging, which is crucial for maintaining a high quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sarcopenia, and its underlying components, on independent ageing in a cohort study of very old men.
Published on Nov 1, 2019in Experimental Gerontology3.08
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Navarra),
Miguel A. Perez-Sousa3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Huelva)
+ 5 AuthorsMikel Izquierdo51
Estimated H-index: 51
(University of Navarra)
Abstract Introduction Gait speed worsens with the presence of obesity, and is a powerful marker of functional dependence. Accordingly, gait speed could be a factor that improves or worsens the relationship between obesity and dependence in activities of daily living (ADL). However, to date this potential role has not been examined and the minimum gait speed threshold in the relationship between obesity and ADL is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether speed moderates the assoc...
Published on May 1, 2019in Bone4.36
Zaira Aversa , Xu Zhang + 2 AuthorsNathan K. LeBrasseur44
Estimated H-index: 44
Abstract Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that remarkably adapts to diverse stimuli including exercise, injury, disuse, and, as discussed here, aging. Humans achieve peak skeletal muscle mass and strength in mid-life and then experience a progressive decline of up to 50% by the ninth decade. The loss of muscle mass and function with aging is a phenomenon termed sarcopenia . It is evidenced by the loss and atrophy of muscle fibers and the concomitant accretion of fat and fibrous tissue....
Published on Jun 26, 2019in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases14.30
Leena Sharma54
Estimated H-index: 54
K. Kwoh11
Estimated H-index: 11
+ 9 AuthorsJing Song39
Estimated H-index: 39
Published on Sep 5, 2019in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research2.33
Ellen Lindell1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Sahlgrenska University Hospital),
Lena Kollén (University of Gothenburg)+ 6 AuthorsCaterina Finizia18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Sahlgrenska University Hospital)
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Journal of Sport and Health Science3.64
Minghui Quan (SUS: Shanghai University of Sport), Pengcheng Xun23
Estimated H-index: 23
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
+ 2 AuthorsPeijie Chen6
Estimated H-index: 6
(SUS: Shanghai University of Sport)
Abstract Purpose The extent to which walking pace is associated with a reduced risk for stroke remains unclear. This study examined the association between walking pace and stroke risk based on prospective cohort studies. Methods Databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Internet were searched from the inception dates to January 31, 2019, for prospective cohort studies focusing on walking pace and risk of stroke in adults. Two reviewers independently extra...
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